An ancient, bipedal hominid needs a new nickname. Paranthropus boisei, a 2.3 million to 1.2 million-year-old primate, whom researchers say is an early human cousin, probably didn't crack nuts at all as his common handle suggests.
"Nutcracker Man" most likely ate grass and possibly sedges, said geochemist Thure Cerling, lead author of a study published in the May 2 online edition of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Cerling, a professor of Geology and Geophysics at the University of Utah, and colleagues determined P. boisei's diet by analyzing carbon isotope ratios in the tooth enamel of 24 teeth from 22 P. boisei's individuals. The hominid's diet has been a source of scientific debate because his powerful jaws, huge molars and big, flat cheek teeth indicated he probably fed on nuts and seeds or roots and tubers found in the savannas throughout Eastern Africa.
But, a few years ago, National Science Foundation sponsored research, led by anthropologists at the University of Arkansas in Fayetteville, highlighted inconsistencies with the common view by analyzing scratches and wear marks on P. boisei's teeth.
That team concluded the wear marks were more consistent with modern-day, fruit-eating animals than with most modern-day primates. Now, Cerling as his team confirm P. boisei wasn't a big fan of nuts.
"Wherever we find this creature, it is predominantly eating tropical grasses or perhaps sedges," he said.
The isotope analysis indicated P. boisei individuals preferred C4 grasses and sedges over C3 trees, shrubs and bushes. The findings showed their diets averaged about 77 percent C4 plants, ranging from a low of 61 percent to a high of 91 percent.
That's statistically indistinguishable from the grass diets of grazing animals that lived at the same time: the ancestors of zebras, pigs, warthogs and hippos, said Cerling.
"They were competing with them," he said. "They were eating at the same table."
"Frankly, we didn't expect to find the primate equivalent of a cow dangling from a remote twig of our family tree," said study co-author Matt Sponheimer, anthropology professor at the University of Colorado Boulder.
"Fortunately for us, the work of several research groups over the last several years has begun to soften prevailing notions of early hominid diets. If we had presented our new results at a scientific meeting 20 years ago, we would have been laughed out of the room."
The researchers report the findings in a paper titled, "Diet of Paranthropus boisei in the Early Pleistocene of East Africa." The National Science Foundation's Physical Anthropology Program provided funding for the research.
Other authors included Emma Mbua, Frances Kirera, Fredrick Manthi and Meave Leakey from the National Museums of Kenya, Fredrick Grine from Stony Brook University in New York and Kevin Uno from the University of Utah.Media Contacts
University of Colorado - Ancient bipedal hominid dubbed 'Nutcracker Man' preferred grass to nuts, new study finds: /news/longurl.cfm?id=229
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency that supports fundamental research and education across all fields of science and engineering. In fiscal year (FY) 2010, its budget is about $6.9 billion. NSF funds reach all 50 states through grants to nearly 2,000 universities and institutions. Each year, NSF receives over 45,000 competitive requests for funding, and makes over 11,500 new funding awards. NSF also awards over $400 million in professional and service contracts yearly.
Bobbie Mixon | EurekAlert!
Diving robots find Antarctic seas exhale surprising amounts of carbon dioxide in winter
16.08.2018 | National Science Foundation
Diving robots find Antarctic winter seas exhale surprising amounts of carbon dioxide
15.08.2018 | University of Washington
New design tool automatically creates nanostructure 3D-print templates for user-given colors
Scientists present work at prestigious SIGGRAPH conference
Most of the objects we see are colored by pigments, but using pigments has disadvantages: such colors can fade, industrial pigments are often toxic, and...
Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...
Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.
When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...
Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.
Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....
Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.
Actin is the most abundant protein in highly developed cells and has diverse functions in processes like cell stabilization, cell division and muscle...
17.08.2018 | Event News
08.08.2018 | Event News
27.07.2018 | Event News
17.08.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
17.08.2018 | Information Technology
17.08.2018 | Life Sciences