Each year almost one thousand hectares of cultivated land continue to be lost, thereby wiping out numerous services delivered by the soil, such as filtering water and storing carbon, which are central for our society's wellbeing. The National Research Programme "Sustainable Use of Soil as a Resource" (NRP 68) is suggesting ways in which spatial planning can be structured so that this loss remains as small as possible. First and foremost, soil quality should play a larger role in spatial planning decision-making.
Between 1985 and 2009, 85,000 hectares, or five percent of the cultivated land available in 1985, was lost, mainly in the Swiss Central Plateau and valley floors. Recent land-use statistics indicate that this loss has continued at a slightly reduced rate over the last few years.
Although the revision of the Spatial Planning Act (SPA) has alleviated the situation with regard to rezoning, a large amount of land is still being consumed by infrastructure and building construction outside the official building zones. Along with this, we forfeit the numerous soil functions – such as its fertility, its ability to store carbon and also to retain and filter water
Considering soil quality when weighing up interests
Although the Spatial Planning Act requires land to be used economically, existing legislation does not give cultivated land sufficient protection. Compared to other areas worth protecting such as marshland and forests, fewer specific legal conservation goals exist for cultivated land.
One exception is that of crop rotation areas, which make up around one third of all agricultural land. The remaining two thirds of cultivated land is scarcely considered when weighing up interests. Furthermore, when ring-fencing crop rotation areas, only agricultural productivity is relevant: other soil functions, such as filtration or its role as a habitat, tend to be disregarded.
But it is precisely these aspects that sustainable spatial planning must include when weighing up interests. Added to this, most current construction activity is taking place on highly productive agricultural land: due to their historical development, existing settlements are often surrounded by high-quality soil. Expanding construction activity in the immediate vicinity of settlements therefore leads to a significant loss of high-quality soil in many cases.
Thresholds for the loss of soil quality
Until now, there has been a shortage of suitable instruments for practicably including soil quality in planning decisions. Researchers from the National Research Programme "Sustainable Use of Soil as a Resource" (NRP 68) have therefore developed the concept of soil index points that makes soil quality tangible. For example, it provides information on the question of where construction work or rezoning would be associated with the least impact on soil quality.
"Such a system can be used to maintain soil quality in the long term," explains Adrienne Grêt-Regamey of ETH Zurich. "At a cantonal level, we could define a threshold that represents the maximum tolerable consumption of soil index points. Using this as a quota would enable us to control consumption in terms of soil quality." Experience gained in Stuttgart has shown that the loss of high-quality soil can be reduced using tools such as this.
Achieving a sustainable soil policy
Other NRP 68 researchers are also highlighting the importance of available cultivated land and its quality. "Anticipated population growth and climate change in particular represent major challenges for the sustainable use of soil," declares Felix Walter of Ecoplan. "Because soil is not a renewable resource, there is no way of avoiding restrictions in the long term."
We therefore not only need to take action in farming and forestry, but also in other policy areas such as settlement and infrastructure development, and we need to make targeted efforts with regard to communication. Based on an overview of possible initiatives, Felix Walter is therefore highlighting ways of achieving a sustainable soil policy.
Alongside effective measures in spatial planning, agriculture and forestry, such a strategy also requires improved soil mapping, an intensive awareness campaign, close collaboration between the various parties involved in soil protection and spatial planning, and a high degree of commitment on the part of political bodies at the federal, cantonal and local level.
Time is of the essence
We do not have much time in which to take effective measures towards a sustainable soil policy. "Time is of the essence," stresses Adrienne Grêt-Regamey. "Our analyses show that the window of opportunity for protecting today's soil quality is extremely small." We therefore need to further develop the necessary foundations without delay. For example, in order to use soil index points, we need in-depth pilot studies, which NRP 68 is no longer able to carry out. "The forthcoming second revision of the Spatial Planning Act provides an opportunity to incorporate soil quality more firmly into legislation."
Adrienne Grêt-Regamey, Sander Kool, Lukas Bühlmann, Samuel Kissling (2018): A soil agenda for spatial planning. Thematic Synthesis Report TS3 for the National Research Programme "Sustainable Use of Soil as a Resource" (NRP 68), Berne.
Felix Walter, Elvira Hänni (2018): Ways to a sustainable soil policy. Thematic Synthesis Report 5 for the National Research Programme "Sustainable Use of Soil as a Resource" (NRP 68), Berne.
Prof. Adrienne Grêt-Regamey
Institute for Spatial and Landscape Development, ETH Zurich
Stefano-Franscini-Platz 5, 8093 Zurich
Phone: +41 44 633 29 57
Mobile: +41 79 667 53 31
Felix Walter, Ecoplan
Monbijoustrasse 14, 3011 Bern
Phone: +41 31 356 61 74
Urs Steiger, NRP 68 Knowledge Transfer Officer
Pilatusstrasse 30, CH-6003 Lucerne
Tel. +41 79 667 62 53
National Research Programme "Sustainable Use of Soil as a Resource"
NRP 68 is laying the foundations for the sustainable use of soil in Switzerland. This requires both the ecological and the economic benefits of soil to be considered. The concept of ecosystem services provides an opportunity to link soil functions and their value to human well-being. www.nfp68.ch
This is the last of three media releases that the NRP 68 is publishing on its five thematic synthesis reports. The first, "Switzerland needs nationwide soil mapping", was published on 19 April, and the second, "Keeping the soil fit", was published on 26 April 2018.
The two syntheses and pictures for editorial use can be found on our website.
SNF Media - Abteilung Kommunikation | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft
Researchers discover natural product that could lead to new class of commercial herbicide
16.07.2018 | UCLA Samueli School of Engineering
Advance warning system via cell phone app: Avoiding extreme weather damage in agriculture
12.07.2018 | Leibniz-Zentrum für Agrarlandschaftsforschung (ZALF) e.V.
For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.
To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...
For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.
Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...
Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.
A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...
Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.
"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....
Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.
Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...
13.07.2018 | Event News
12.07.2018 | Event News
03.07.2018 | Event News
18.07.2018 | Materials Sciences
18.07.2018 | Life Sciences
18.07.2018 | Health and Medicine