Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Artificial Spin Ice: A New Playground to Better Understand Magnetism

30.04.2015

Experiments using novel magnetic nanostructures confirm theoretically predicted behavior -- bolstering their utility as a tool for understanding complex magnetic materials.

The Science


Image courtesy of Nature Physics 10, 670, 2014

Scanning electron micrograph (top) shows the arrangement of iron-nickel nanomagnets for the newly developed “shakti” artificial spin ice lattice. In the lattice, 2, 3, and 4 nanomagnets meet in periodic arrays. Magnetic force microscope image (bottom) shows the poles of the nanomagnets (dark and light contrast).

Newswise — For the first time, nanomagnet islands or arrays were arranged into an exotic structure (called “shakti”) that does not directly relate to any known natural material. The shakti artificial spin ice configuration was fabricated and reproduced experimentally. The arrays are theoretical predictions of multiple, or degenerate, ground states that are characteristic of complex frustrated magnetic materials.

The Impact

Complex nanomagnet arrays with exotic geometries can be designed and fabricated to exhibit desired physical phenomena and subtle effects. The results open the door to experiments on other artificial spin-ice lattices, predicted to host interesting phenomena. The phenomena are associated with the design of the exotic lattice structures where the topology governs the physics and properties of the material.

Summary

Artificial spin ice is a class of lithographically created arrays of interacting ferromagnetic nanometer-scale islands. Researchers created artificial spin ice as a means to investigate complex magnetism and the related physics in a material that could be tailored to precise specifications and imaged directly. Because of the large magnetic energy scales of these nanoscale islands, a special, newly developed thermal treatment is required to achieve the magnetic ground state. In this research, iron-nickel nanomagnets were fabricated in shakti arrays, a structure with 2, 3, and 4 nanomagnet islands meeting in periodic arrays (resulting in vertexes with 2, 3, and 4 coordination numbers). Then, the structure underwent a thermal treatment by heating it above the Curie temperature (the temperature at which the nanomagnets become magnetic). In this manner, the artificial spin ice achieved unprecedented thermal ground state ordering of the magnetic moments. In these investigations, the shakti spin ice lattices were used to experimentally confirm the ground states of the lattice predicted by Monte Carlo simulations and to study the dynamics and charge screening effects for the system.

Funding

DOE Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences program. Lithography was performed in part with the support of the National Science Foundation National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network. Work performed at the University of Minnesota was supported by the European Union Marie Curie International Outgoing Fellowships.

Publications

I. Gilbert, G. W. Chern, S. Zhang, L. O’Brien, B. Fore, C. Nisoli, P. Schiffer, “Emergent ice rule and magnetic charge screening from vertex frustration in artificial spin ice.” Nature Physics 10, 670 (2014). [DOI: 10.1038/nphys3037]

S. Zhang, I. Gilbert, C. Nisoli, G.W. Chern, M.J. Erickson, L. O’Brien, C. Leighton, P.E. Lammert, V.H. Crespi, P. Schiffer, “Crystallites of magnetic charges in artificial spin ice.” Nature 500, 553–557 (2013). [DOI: 10.1038/nature12399]

Contact Information
Kristin Manke
kristin.manke@science.doe.gov

Kristin Manke | newswise
Further information:
http://www.science.doe.gov

More articles from Materials Sciences:

nachricht Pressure tuned magnetism paves the way for novel electronic devices
18.12.2018 | Bar-Ilan University

nachricht Researchers observe charge-stripe crystal phase in an insulating cuprate
18.12.2018 | Boston College

All articles from Materials Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Data storage using individual molecules

Researchers from the University of Basel have reported a new method that allows the physical state of just a few atoms or molecules within a network to be controlled. It is based on the spontaneous self-organization of molecules into extensive networks with pores about one nanometer in size. In the journal ‘small’, the physicists reported on their investigations, which could be of particular importance for the development of new storage devices.

Around the world, researchers are attempting to shrink data storage devices to achieve as large a storage capacity in as small a space as possible. In almost...

Im Focus: Data use draining your battery? Tiny device to speed up memory while also saving power

The more objects we make "smart," from watches to entire buildings, the greater the need for these devices to store and retrieve massive amounts of data quickly without consuming too much power.

Millions of new memory cells could be part of a computer chip and provide that speed and energy savings, thanks to the discovery of a previously unobserved...

Im Focus: An energy-efficient way to stay warm: Sew high-tech heating patches to your clothes

Personal patches could reduce energy waste in buildings, Rutgers-led study says

What if, instead of turning up the thermostat, you could warm up with high-tech, flexible patches sewn into your clothes - while significantly reducing your...

Im Focus: Lethal combination: Drug cocktail turns off the juice to cancer cells

A widely used diabetes medication combined with an antihypertensive drug specifically inhibits tumor growth – this was discovered by researchers from the University of Basel’s Biozentrum two years ago. In a follow-up study, recently published in “Cell Reports”, the scientists report that this drug cocktail induces cancer cell death by switching off their energy supply.

The widely used anti-diabetes drug metformin not only reduces blood sugar but also has an anti-cancer effect. However, the metformin dose commonly used in the...

Im Focus: New Foldable Drone Flies through Narrow Holes in Rescue Missions

A research team from the University of Zurich has developed a new drone that can retract its propeller arms in flight and make itself small to fit through narrow gaps and holes. This is particularly useful when searching for victims of natural disasters.

Inspecting a damaged building after an earthquake or during a fire is exactly the kind of job that human rescuers would like drones to do for them. A flying...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

ICTM Conference 2019: Digitization emerges as an engineering trend for turbomachinery construction

12.12.2018 | Event News

New Plastics Economy Investor Forum - Meeting Point for Innovations

10.12.2018 | Event News

EGU 2019 meeting: Media registration now open

06.12.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Pressure tuned magnetism paves the way for novel electronic devices

18.12.2018 | Materials Sciences

New type of low-energy nanolaser that shines in all directions

18.12.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

NASA research reveals Saturn is losing its rings at 'worst-case-scenario' rate

18.12.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>