Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Nodding or shaking your head may even influence your own thoughts, study finds

08.07.2003


When you nod your head to signal approval or shake your head to show disapproval, it’s not just sending a message to others – you may also be influencing yourself.

A new study showed that these simple movements influenced people’s agreement with an editorial they heard while nodding or shaking their head. Researchers found that other body movements – such as writing with a non-dominant hand – can also influence attitudes, even about important issues such as self-esteem.

And these body movements exert their influence without people being aware of what is happening.



“We think of nodding or shaking our head as something that communicates to other people, but it turns out that it is also communicating to ourselves,” said Richard Petty, co-author of the study and professor of psychology at Ohio State University.

In a sense, Petty said, nodding or shaking your head, as well as other body movements, serve as a kind of “self-validation” that confirms to us how we feel about our own thoughts.

“If we are nodding our heads up and down, we gain confidence in what we are thinking. But when we shake our heads from side to side, we lose confidence in our own thoughts.”

Petty conducted the study with Pablo Brinol, a former doctoral student at Ohio State now at the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid in Spain. The research appears in the current issue of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

In one study, the researchers told 82 college students that they were testing the sound quality of stereo headphones – particularly how the headphones would perform when they are being jostled, as during dancing or jogging.

Half the participants were told to move their heads up and down (nodding) about once per second while wearing the headphones. The other half was told to move their heads from side to side (shaking) while listening on the headphones.

All of the participants listened to a tape of a purported campus radio program that included music and a station editorial advocating that students be required to carry personal identification cards.

After listening to the tape, the participants rated the headphones and gave their opinions about the music and the editorial that they heard.
The study found that head movements did affect whether they agreed with the editorial. But the effect is more complicated than might be expected.

The study found that nodding your head up and down is, in effect, telling yourself that you have confidence in your own thoughts – whether those thoughts are positive or negative. Shaking your head does the opposite: its gives people less confidence in their own thoughts.

So participants in this study who heard an editorial that made good arguments agreed more with the message when they were nodding in a “yes” manner than shaking in a “no” manner. This is because the nodding movements increased confidence in the favorable thoughts people had to the good arguments compared to shaking.

However, students who heard an editorial that made poor arguments showed the reverse pattern. These students agreed less with the message when they were nodding than when shaking. This is because the nodding movements increased confidence in the negative thoughts they had to the poor arguments compared to shaking.

“Nodding your head doesn’t mean you’ll agree with whatever you hear. One of the most surprising things we found is that if you’re thinking negative thoughts while you’re nodding, this actually strengthens your disapproval,” Petty said. “What the head nodding is doing is making you more confident in your negative thoughts. In contrast, when the thoughts were mostly positive, then nodding increased confidence in these thoughts and thereby increased persuasion.”

Another study found the same results occurred even when participants were evaluating something they knew very well: themselves. And it occurred with a completely different kind of body motion: handwriting.

In this case, the participants were asked to write down three good or bad qualities they thought they had with respect to their planned careers. But some were told to write with their right hand, while others were told to write with their left hand (all were determined to be right-handed). They were then asked to rate how confident they were in the thoughts they had listed.

Results showed that the participants had more confidence in their thoughts when they wrote them with their right (dominant) hand than when they wrote with the left (non-dominant) hand.

“As with the head nodding, using the dominant hand affected how confident participants were in their own thoughts,” Petty said.
In all the studies, the participants were questioned afterwards to determine if they suspected their head movements or writing with a non-dominant hand influenced their attitudes. None thought so.

Petty said a whole range of body movements, including things such as smiling, as well as other factors such as mood, influence our attitudes to an extent we are unaware.

“We like to think of ourselves as totally rational,” Petty said. “We like to think that if we’re confident in something, it is because we’ve investigated the issues thoroughly. We certainly don’t want to believe that our confidence can come because we’re smiling, or nodding, or because we’re in a good mood. But that seems to be the case.”

Petty said it is significant that these body movements can even affect confidence in thoughts about issues in our lives that are important to us and that we have thought about deeply – like our own self-evaluations.

“The fact that this impacts us on our most important decisions and when we are being very thoughtful, that makes this dangerous in some sense,” he said. “We have to be very vigilant when we’re evaluating our own thoughts. We need to think about why we are confident or not confident in certain attitudes.”


Contact: Richard Petty, (614) 292-1640; Petty.1@osu.edu
Written by Jeff Grabmeier, (614) 292-8457; Grabmeier.1@osu.edu

Jeff Grabmeier | Ohio State University
Further information:
http://www.osu.edu/researchnews/archive/headmvmt.htm

More articles from Social Sciences:

nachricht New population data provide insight on aging, migration
31.08.2016 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)

nachricht PRB projects world population rising 33 percent by 2050 to nearly 10 billion
25.08.2016 | Population Reference Bureau

All articles from Social Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First quantum photonic circuit with electrically driven light source

Optical quantum computers can revolutionize computer technology. A team of researchers led by scientists from Münster University and KIT now succeeded in putting a quantum optical experimental set-up onto a chip. In doing so, they have met one of the requirements for making it possible to use photonic circuits for optical quantum computers.

Optical quantum computers are what people are pinning their hopes on for tomorrow’s computer technology – whether for tap-proof data encryption, ultrafast...

Im Focus: OLED microdisplays in data glasses for improved human-machine interaction

The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP has been developing various applications for OLED microdisplays based on organic semiconductors. By integrating the capabilities of an image sensor directly into the microdisplay, eye movements can be recorded by the smart glasses and utilized for guidance and control functions, as one example. The new design will be debuted at Augmented World Expo Europe (AWE) in Berlin at Booth B25, October 18th – 19th.

“Augmented-reality” and “wearables” have become terms we encounter almost daily. Both can make daily life a little simpler and provide valuable assistance for...

Im Focus: Artificial Intelligence Helps in the Discovery of New Materials

With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. They report on their findings in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.

Elpasolite is a glassy, transparent, shiny and soft mineral with a cubic crystal structure. First discovered in El Paso County (Colorado, USA), it can also be...

Im Focus: Complex hardmetal tools out of the 3D printer

For the first time, Fraunhofer IKTS shows additively manufactured hardmetal tools at WorldPM 2016 in Hamburg. Mechanical, chemical as well as a high heat resistance and extreme hardness are required from tools that are used in mechanical and automotive engineering or in plastics and building materials industry. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS in Dresden managed the production of complex hardmetal tools via 3D printing in a quality that are in no way inferior to conventionally produced high-performance tools.

Fraunhofer IKTS counts decades of proven expertise in the development of hardmetals. To date, reliable cutting, drilling, pressing and stamping tools made of...

Im Focus: Launch of New Industry Working Group for Process Control in Laser Material Processing

At AKL’16, the International Laser Technology Congress held in May this year, interest in the topic of process control was greater than expected. Appropriately, the event was also used to launch the Industry Working Group for Process Control in Laser Material Processing. The group provides a forum for representatives from industry and research to initiate pre-competitive projects and discuss issues such as standards, potential cost savings and feasibility.

In the age of industry 4.0, laser technology is firmly established within manufacturing. A wide variety of laser techniques – from USP ablation and additive...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

European Health Forum Gastein 2016 kicks off today

28.09.2016 | Event News

Laser use for neurosurgery and biofabrication - LaserForum 2016 focuses on medical technology

27.09.2016 | Event News

Experts from industry and academia discuss the future mobile telecommunications standard 5G

23.09.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

European Health Forum Gastein 2016 kicks off today

28.09.2016 | Event News

New switch decides between genome repair and death of cells

27.09.2016 | Life Sciences

Nanotechnology for energy materials: Electrodes like leaf veins

27.09.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>