Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

A revolution in knot theory

10.11.2011
In the 19th century, Lord Kelvin made the inspired guess that elements are knots in the "ether". Hydrogen would be one kind of knot, oxygen a different kind of knot---and so forth throughout the periodic table of elements.

This idea led Peter Guthrie Tait to prepare meticulous and quite beautiful tables of knots, in an effort to elucidate when two knots are truly different. From the point of view of physics, Kelvin and Tait were on the wrong track: the atomic viewpoint soon made the theory of ether obsolete. But from the mathematical viewpoint, a gold mine had been discovered: The branch of mathematics now known as "knot theory" has been burgeoning ever since.


This knot has Gauss code O1U2O3U1O2U3.
Credit: Graphic by Sam Nelson

In his article "The Combinatorial Revolution in Knot Theory", to appear in the December 2011 issue of the Notices of the AMS,, Sam Nelson describes a novel approach to knot theory that has gained currency in the past several years and the mysterious new knot-like objects discovered in the process.

As sailors have long known, many different kinds of knots are possible; in fact, the variety is infinite. A *mathematical* knot can be imagined as a knotted circle: Think of a pretzel, which is a knotted circle of dough, or a rubber band, which is the "un-knot" because it is not knotted. Mathematicians study the patterns, symmetries, and asymmetries in knots and develop methods for distinguishing when two knots are truly different.

Mathematically, one thinks of the string out of which a knot is formed as being a one-dimensional object, and the knot itself lives in three-dimensional space. Drawings of knots, like the ones done by Tait, are projections of the knot onto a two-dimensional plane. In such drawings, it is customary to draw over-and-under crossings of the string as broken and unbroken lines. If three or more strands of the knot are on top of each other at single point, we can move the strands slightly without changing the knot so that every point on the plane sits below at most two strands of the knot. A planar knot diagram is a picture of a knot, drawn in a two-dimensional plane, in which every point of the diagram represents at most two points in the knot. Planar knot diagrams have long been used in mathematics as a way to represent and study knots.

As Nelson reports in his article, mathematicians have devised various ways to represent the information contained in knot diagrams. One example is the Gauss code, which is a sequence of letters and numbers wherein each crossing in the knot is assigned a number and the letter O or U, depending on whether the crossing goes over or under. The Gauss code for a simple knot might look like this: O1U2O3U1O2U3.

In the mid-1990s, mathematicians discovered something strange. There are Gauss codes for which it is impossible to draw planar knot diagrams but which nevertheless behave like knots in certain ways. In particular, those codes, which Nelson calls *nonplanar Gauss codes*, work perfectly well in certain formulas that are used to investigate properties of knots. Nelson writes: "A planar Gauss code always describes a [knot] in three-space; what kind of thing could a nonplanar Gauss code be describing?" As it turns out, there are "virtual knots" that have legitimate Gauss codes but do not correspond to knots in three-dimensional space. These virtual knots can be investigated by applying combinatorial techniques to knot diagrams.

Just as new horizons opened when people dared to consider what would happen if -1 had a square root---and thereby discovered complex numbers, which have since been thoroughly explored by mathematicians and have become ubiquitous in physics and engineering---mathematicians are finding that the equations they used to investigate regular knots give rise to a whole universe of "generalized knots" that have their own peculiar qualities. Although they seem esoteric at first, these generalized knots turn out to have interpretations as familiar objects in mathematics. "Moreover," Nelson writes, "classical knot theory emerges as a special case of the new generalized knot theory."

Related to this subject are an upcoming issue of the Journal of Knot Theory and its Ramifications, devoted to virtual knot theory, and the upcoming Knots in Washington conference at George Washington University, December 2-4, 2011, which will focus on on "Categorification of Knots, Algebras, and Quandles; Quantum Computing".

Specific questions are best directed to the author, whose email address is given in the article. General questions can be directed to:

Mike Breen and Annette Emerson
AMS Public Awareness Office
Email: paoffice@ams.org
Telephone: 401-455-4000
Founded in 1888 to further mathematical research and scholarship, today the more than 30,000 member American Mathematical Society fulfills its mission through programs and services that promote mathematical research and its uses, strengthen mathematical education, and foster awareness and appreciation of mathematics and its connections to other disciplines and to everyday life.
American Mathematical Society
201 Charles Street
Providence, RI 02904
401-455-4000

Mike Breen | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.ams.org

More articles from Science Education:

nachricht New Master’s programme: University of Kaiserslautern educates experts in quantum technology
15.03.2017 | Technische Universität Kaiserslautern

nachricht Decision-making research in children: Rules of thumb are learned with time
19.10.2016 | Max-Planck-Institut für Bildungsforschung

All articles from Science Education >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A Challenging European Research Project to Develop New Tiny Microscopes

The Institute of Semiconductor Technology and the Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, both members of the Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology (LENA), at Technische Universität Braunschweig are partners in a new European research project entitled ChipScope, which aims to develop a completely new and extremely small optical microscope capable of observing the interior of living cells in real time. A consortium of 7 partners from 5 countries will tackle this issue with very ambitious objectives during a four-year research program.

To demonstrate the usefulness of this new scientific tool, at the end of the project the developed chip-sized microscope will be used to observe in real-time...

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Transport of molecular motors into cilia

28.03.2017 | Life Sciences

A novel hybrid UAV that may change the way people operate drones

28.03.2017 | Information Technology

NASA spacecraft investigate clues in radiation belts

28.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>