Argonne National Laboratory senior chemist Stephen Klippenstein – along with colleagues at Sandia National Laboratories; the Institute of Physics, University of Rennes, France; and the University of Cambridge, U.K. – has developed a detailed understanding of the dynamics of reactions between neutral radicals and neutral molecules, known as “neutral-neutral” reactions, at temperatures as low as 20 Kelvin, approximately the temperature of interstellar space.
In their work, Klippenstein and his collaborators determined why certain molecules reacted rapidly even at low temperatures by carefully comparing theory and experiment for a sample class of reactions (O3P + alkenes) that spans the range from non-reactive to highly reactive. The observed results from the experiment closely correlated with theoretical predictions, said Klippenstein.
“It was remarkable," he said, "just how well theory and experiment agreed throughout the whole spectrum from 20 Kelvin to room temperature. This means that we can rely on theory to predict which reactions will happen quickly.”
Establishing a working model for interstellar chemistry is especially important given the difficulty of performing large-scale experiments, according to Klippenstein.
“My collaborators have developed some great experimental techniques for measuring these reactions at low temperatures," he said. "But such experiments are still very time-consuming and are also hard to apply to many reactions. So schemes for predicting the reactivity for arbitrary reactions, either a priori or from extrapolation of measurements at higher temperatures, are of great utility to modelers of interstellar chemistry.”
Prior experimental studies with the CRESU (Reaction Kinetics in Uniform Supersonic Flow) technique demonstrated that a “surprising number” of neutral-neutral reactions remain rapid at very low temperatures. As a result, such reactions can play an important role in the chemistry of interstellar space, in contrast with the conventional wisdom that interstellar chemistry is essentially all ion-based.
The paper, entitled “Understanding Reactivity at Very Low Temperatures: The Reactions of Oxygen Atoms with Alkenes,” appears in the July 6 issue of Science.
This research was supported by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences within the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy.
With employees from more than 60 nations, Argonne National Laboratory brings the world's brightest scientists and engineers together to find exciting and creative new solutions to pressing national problems in science and technology. The nation's first national laboratory, Argonne conducts leading-edge basic and applied scientific research in virtually every scientific discipline. Argonne researchers work closely with researchers from hundreds of companies, universities, and federal, state and municipal agencies to help them solve their specific problems, advance America 's scientific leadership and prepare the nation for a better future. Argonne is managed by UChicago Argonne, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science.
For more information, please contact Sylvia Carson (630/252-5510 or email@example.com) at Argonne.
Sylvia Carson | EurekAlert!
Long-lived storage of a photonic qubit for worldwide teleportation
12.12.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik
Telescopes team up to study giant galaxy
12.12.2017 | International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research
Researchers have developed a water cloaking concept based on electromagnetic forces that could eliminate an object's wake, greatly reducing its drag while...
Tiny pores at a cell's entryway act as miniature bouncers, letting in some electrically charged atoms--ions--but blocking others. Operating as exquisitely sensitive filters, these "ion channels" play a critical role in biological functions such as muscle contraction and the firing of brain cells.
To rapidly transport the right ions through the cell membrane, the tiny channels rely on a complex interplay between the ions and surrounding molecules,...
The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecule’s storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters.
Over the past few years, the building blocks of storage media have gotten ever smaller. But further miniaturization of the current technology is hindered by...
With innovative experiments, researchers at the Helmholtz-Zentrums Geesthacht and the Technical University Hamburg unravel why tiny metallic structures are extremely strong
Light-weight and simultaneously strong – porous metallic nanomaterials promise interesting applications as, for instance, for future aeroplanes with enhanced...
An interdisciplinary group of researchers interfaced individual bacteria with a computer to build a hybrid bio-digital circuit - Study published in Nature Communications
Scientists at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) have managed to control the behavior of individual bacteria by connecting them to a...
11.12.2017 | Event News
08.12.2017 | Event News
07.12.2017 | Event News
12.12.2017 | Earth Sciences
12.12.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering
12.12.2017 | Life Sciences