Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

G-Zero update

03.07.2006
Ghostly strange quarks influence proton structure

In research performed in Hall C, nuclear physicists have found that strange quarks do contribute to the structure of the proton. This result indicates that, just as previous experiments have hinted, strange quarks in the proton's quark-gluon sea contribute to a proton's properties. The result comes from work performed by the G-Zero collaboration, an international group of 108 physicists from 19 institutions, and was presented at a Jefferson Lab physics seminar on June 17.

Protons are found in the heart of all matter: the nucleus of the atom. Physicists have long known that protons are primarily built of particles called quarks, along with particles called gluons that bind the quarks together. There are three permanent quarks in the proton that come in two "flavors": two "up" and one "down."

Up and down quarks are the lightest of the possible six flavors of quarks that appear to exist in the universe. In addition to the proton's three resident quarks, the peculiar rules of quantum mechanics allow other particles to appear from time to time. These ghostly particles usually vanish in a tiny fraction of a second, but it's possible that they stay around long enough to influence the structure of the proton. Nuclear physicists set out to catch some of these ghostly particles in the act. They determined that the nextlightest quark, the "strange" quark, would be the most likely to have a visible effect.

According to Doug Beck, a professor of physics at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and the spokesperson for the G-Zero collaboration, one way to see these strange quarks is to measure them through the weak interaction. "If we look with photons via the electromagnetic interaction, we see quarks inside the proton. And then, if we do it with the weak interaction, we see a very similar, yet distinctly different view of the quarks. And it's by comparing those pictures that we can get at the strange quark contribution," Beck says.

Since the hydrogen nucleus consists of a single proton, G-Zero researchers sent a polarized beam of electrons into a hydrogen target. They then watched to see how many protons were "scattered," essentially knocked out of the target, by the electrons.

Throughout the experiment, the researchers alternated the electron beam's polarization (spin). "We run the beam with polarization in one direction, and we look to see how many protons are scattered. Then we turn the beam around, in polarization at least, and measure for exactly the same amount of time again and look to see how many protons are scattered. And there will be a different number by about 10 parts per million," Beck says. That's because the electromagnetic force is mirror-symmetric (the electrons' spin will not affect the number of protons scattered), while the weak force is not (electrons polarized one way will interact slightly differently than electrons spinning oppositely).

"The relative difference in those counting rates tells us how big the weak interaction piece is in this scattering of electrons from protons. We compare it to the strength of the electromagnetic interaction between electrons and protons, and that gives us the answer that we're looking for," Beck explains.

What the researchers found was that strange quarks do contribute to the structure of the proton. In particular, Beck says the collaboration found that strange quarks contribute to the proton's electric and magnetic fields -- in other words, its charge distribution and magnetization.

"All quarks carry charge, and one of the things we measure is where the strange quarks are located in the proton's overall charge distribution," Beck explains, "And then there's a related effect. There are these charged quarks inside the protons, and they're moving around. And when charged objects move around, they can create a magnetic field. In G-Zero, we also measure how strange quarks contribute to the proton's magnetization."

G-Zero allowed the researchers to extract a quantity representing the strange quark's contribution to a combination of the proton's charge and magnetization. "The data indicate that the strange quark contributions are non-zero over the entire range of our measurements," Beck says, "And there are a couple of points that overlap other measurements. They agree, so that's a good thing."

However, by itself, the G-Zero result does not yet allow the researchers to separate the strange quark's contribution to the charge from its contribution to the magnetization. "There's another G-Zero run coming up in December, and that will help us to try to disentangle this combination of the contribution to the charge and the magnetization. So that will give us one more measurement that will allow us to look at those quantities separately," Beck notes.

Linda Ware | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.jlab.org

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Study offers new theoretical approach to describing non-equilibrium phase transitions
27.04.2017 | DOE/Argonne National Laboratory

nachricht SwRI-led team discovers lull in Mars' giant impact history
26.04.2017 | Southwest Research Institute

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Fighting drug resistant tuberculosis – InfectoGnostics meets MYCO-NET² partners in Peru

28.04.2017 | Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Wireless power can drive tiny electronic devices in the GI tract

28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering

Ice cave in Transylvania yields window into region's past

28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences

Nose2Brain – Better Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis

28.04.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>