Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) working with Russian colleagues have significantly improved the design of optical atomic clocks that hold thousands of atoms in a lattice made of intersecting laser beams. The design, in which ytterbium atoms oscillate or "tick" at optical frequencies, has the potential to be more stable and accurate than todays best time standards, which are based on microwaves at much lower frequencies. More accurate time standards could improve communications, enhance navigation systems, and enable new tests of physical theories, among other applications.
NISTs new optical atomic clock uses two magnetic coils (red rings) and an optical lattice (red laser beam), as well as intersecting violet lasers to cool ytterbium atoms, slowing their motion. Illustration credit: NIST
The lattice of laser beams traps small numbers of ytterbium atoms in pancake-shaped "wells." A yellow laser excites the atoms so that they switch between lower (blue) and higher (yellow) energy levels. Illustration credit: NIST
Described in two papers in the March 3 issue of Physical Review Letters,* the heart of the clock consists of about 1,000 pancake-shaped wells made of laser light and arranged in a single line, each containing about 10 atoms of the heavy metal ytterbium. The lattice design results in fewer systematic errors than optical atomic clocks using moving balls of cold atoms, and also offers advantages in parallel processing over other approaches using single charged atoms (ions). The optical lattice, created by an intense near-visible laser beam, is loaded by first slowing down the atoms with violet laser light and then using green laser light to further cool the atoms so that they can be captured. Scientists detect the atoms "ticks" (518 quadrillion per second) by bathing them in yellow light at slightly different frequencies until they find the exact "resonant" frequency (or color) that the atoms absorb best.
Previous lattice-based clocks have used atoms with odd-numbered atomic masses, which have a nuclear magnetic field that causes some additional complications. The new clock uses atoms with even-numbered atomic masses that have no net nuclear magnetic field but have been difficult to use in atomic clocks until now. The researchers found they could apply a small external magnetic field combined with yellow laser light to induce an otherwise "forbidden" oscillation between two energy levels in the atoms. The team reported an extremely precise resonance frequency with a strong signal that demonstrates the clocks potential for very high stability. The new approach is also applicable to other atoms with even-numbered atomic masses, such as strontium and calcium, which are under study at NIST and other research laboratories around the world.
Laura Ost | EurekAlert!
A better way to weigh millions of solitary stars
15.12.2017 | Vanderbilt University
A chip for environmental and health monitoring
15.12.2017 | Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
DNA molecules that follow specific instructions could offer more precise molecular control of synthetic chemical systems, a discovery that opens the door for engineers to create molecular machines with new and complex behaviors.
Researchers have created chemical amplifiers and a chemical oscillator using a systematic method that has the potential to embed sophisticated circuit...
MPQ scientists achieve long storage times for photonic quantum bits which break the lower bound for direct teleportation in a global quantum network.
Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor...
Researchers have developed a water cloaking concept based on electromagnetic forces that could eliminate an object's wake, greatly reducing its drag while...
Tiny pores at a cell's entryway act as miniature bouncers, letting in some electrically charged atoms--ions--but blocking others. Operating as exquisitely sensitive filters, these "ion channels" play a critical role in biological functions such as muscle contraction and the firing of brain cells.
To rapidly transport the right ions through the cell membrane, the tiny channels rely on a complex interplay between the ions and surrounding molecules,...
The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecule’s storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters.
Over the past few years, the building blocks of storage media have gotten ever smaller. But further miniaturization of the current technology is hindered by...
11.12.2017 | Event News
08.12.2017 | Event News
07.12.2017 | Event News
15.12.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering
15.12.2017 | Materials Sciences
15.12.2017 | Life Sciences