Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Going to Mercury? Don’t leave home without a NIST calibration

16.08.2004


Artist’s impression of the MESSENGER spacecraft in orbit around Mercury.


The first spacecraft intended to orbit Mercury was launched on Aug. 3, 2004, carrying an instrument for mapping the composition of the planet’s crust that was calibrated with a novel procedure at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The procedure, using NIST-produced, high-energy gamma rays, enabled the device to be prepared for the same intense radiation levels typically produced in outer space.

Mercury is a rocky planet like the Earth but smaller, denser and with an older surface. Scientists believe that by studying Mercury they can develop a better understanding of how the Earth formed, evolved and interacts with the Sun.

Scheduled to orbit Mercury in 2011, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft carries seven scientific instruments, including a detector that will measure gamma rays emitted by Mercury’s crust as it is bombarded by cosmic rays. The bombardment releases neutrons, which react with the elements in the crust; analysis of the resulting gamma rays will help identify the elements. The detector’s efficiency (the fraction of incoming gamma rays detected) needed to be calibrated based on the gamma-ray energy for 37 different orientation angles associated with the orbits around the planet. Typical gamma ray sources, such as those used for medical treatments, emit at lower energy levels than those needed for the calibration.



NIST scientists, in collaboration with the mission’s prime contractor, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, solved the calibration problem by using a high-intensity neutron beam to irradiate targets made of sodium chloride and chromium. The targets captured neutrons and emitted gamma rays, which were measured by MESSENGER’s gamma-ray detector. These gamma rays spanned the energy range that will be measured in the planetary assay. According to Johns Hopkins’ Edgar A. Rhodes -- lead scientist for the MESSENGER instrument --the calibration procedure "will likely set a new standard for space-flight gamma-ray spectrometers."

Laura Ost | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.nist.gov

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht A tale of two pulsars' tails: Plumes offer geometry lessons to astronomers
18.01.2017 | Penn State

nachricht Studying fundamental particles in materials
17.01.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Struktur und Dynamik der Materie

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

Im Focus: How to inflate a hardened concrete shell with a weight of 80 t

At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).

Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

Nothing will happen without batteries making it happen!

05.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A big nano boost for solar cells

18.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Glass's off-kilter harmonies

18.01.2017 | Materials Sciences

Toward a 'smart' patch that automatically delivers insulin when needed

18.01.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>