Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

The first module of CMS superconducting magnet is leaving towards Cern

21.01.2004


A huge solenoid, which will hold the world record of stored energy



The first module of the five constituting the CMS superconducting magnet is sailing on January 21st of from Genova port to Cern. CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) is one of the experiments that will take place at the accelerator Lhc (Large Hadron Collider), under construction at Cern in Geneva. The device will arrive after a 10-days travel. One of the most ambitious goals of CMS is to provide information about the elusive Higgs boson: the elementary particle which is associated with the mechanism giving rise to the masses of all particles. The theoretical models predicted its existence, but it has not been directly observed yet.

Cms will analyse the products of the collisions of the proton beams steered in Lhc. It will reconstruct their tracks and measure their energy. The superconducting magnet, containing the heart of Cms experiment generates a very high magnetic field, necessary to recognize the particles produced by the collisions. Indeed the tracks of the charged particles crossing a magnetic field are deflected in different ways according to their mass and charge. Therefore, observing particles tracks we can trace back to their identity. To obtain observable deflections we need a magnetic field as high as the energy of the outgoing particles. Since in Lhc particles beams with a very high energy are produced and made to collide (these particles in a very small scale reproduce the conditions of our universe in the very first instants of its birth) it is necessary to have a very high magnetic field.


The superconducting magnet is the result of an international cooperation among different research centres. The participants are in fact the Infn (National Institute for Nuclear Physics) the Cern, the Cea (Commissariat pour l’Energie Atomic), the Eth-Z (Polytechnic of Zurich), with the cooperation of Ansaldo Superconductors of Genova. The latter was entrusted with the construction of the five modules constituting the magnet and with the preparation of an area of about 1.500 square meters for their construction.

Besides producing a very high magnetic field, the magnet must have extraordinary sizes, so that it can contain the whole of the detectors necessary to carry out precise measurements. Therefore Cms has an inside diameter of 6.3 meters, a length of 12.5 meters and generates a magnetic field of 4 T (about 80.000 times stronger than the Earth’s). Once completed, the Cms superconducting magnet will boast a notable record: with its 2.6 Gigajoule of energy it will hold the world record of energy ever stored in a magnet. Another feature of this apparatus is that it must operate at a very low temperature, so that the cables, where the electric current flows, can be in a particular status named superconductor. Thanks to this characteristic, the high current necessary to generate the required magnetic field can flow trough a few wires of about a millimetre of diameter. If a superconducting material was not used, cables of so huge sizes would be needed, to preclude the construction of the entire structure.

The notable sizes of the superconducting solenoid representing the “living part” of the magnet, required a modular construction in order to allow the transportation from the fabrication site to the Cern laboratories. “A long work of engineering optimization was necessary leading us to subdivide the solenoid into five modules of length 2.5 meters and of weight 45 tonnes. The modules will be constructed and transported one by one to Cern, where the assembling will take place” says Pasquale Fabbricatore, Infn researcher in Genova. In particular Infn is responsible for the activities of design and construction of the so-called cold mass, i.e. the winding and the mechanical structures that will be cooled at – 268 centigrade degrees (4.2 kelvin degrees).

The construction of the superconducting magnet of Cms ha required the development of innovative technologies. “Since a very high current flows in the superconductor magnet, and since the produced magnetic field is so high and the device is so large, inside the solenoid high electromagnetic forces are generated causing mechanical deformation that could make it not working. In order to prevent this problem the standard solution was putting a reinforcing mechanical structure containing the solenoid. In our case this would not have been sufficient. In order to avoid also the smallest deformation, making the cables loosing superconducting properties the reinforcement has been inserted directly inside the cables: an innovative solution requiring remarkable technical skills. However, at this point it has become very difficult to wind the cable in the right way, so it has been necessary to develop a sophisticated completely automate winding system allowing us to perform the work with high geometrical precision”, concludes Pasquale Fabbricatore.

Pasquale Fabbricatore | alfa
Further information:
http://www.infn.it

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Long-lived storage of a photonic qubit for worldwide teleportation
12.12.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik

nachricht Telescopes team up to study giant galaxy
12.12.2017 | International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Long-lived storage of a photonic qubit for worldwide teleportation

MPQ scientists achieve long storage times for photonic quantum bits which break the lower bound for direct teleportation in a global quantum network.

Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor...

Im Focus: Electromagnetic water cloak eliminates drag and wake

Detailed calculations show water cloaks are feasible with today's technology

Researchers have developed a water cloaking concept based on electromagnetic forces that could eliminate an object's wake, greatly reducing its drag while...

Im Focus: Scientists channel graphene to understand filtration and ion transport into cells

Tiny pores at a cell's entryway act as miniature bouncers, letting in some electrically charged atoms--ions--but blocking others. Operating as exquisitely sensitive filters, these "ion channels" play a critical role in biological functions such as muscle contraction and the firing of brain cells.

To rapidly transport the right ions through the cell membrane, the tiny channels rely on a complex interplay between the ions and surrounding molecules,...

Im Focus: Towards data storage at the single molecule level

The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecule’s storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters.

Over the past few years, the building blocks of storage media have gotten ever smaller. But further miniaturization of the current technology is hindered by...

Im Focus: Successful Mechanical Testing of Nanowires

With innovative experiments, researchers at the Helmholtz-Zentrums Geesthacht and the Technical University Hamburg unravel why tiny metallic structures are extremely strong

Light-weight and simultaneously strong – porous metallic nanomaterials promise interesting applications as, for instance, for future aeroplanes with enhanced...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

See, understand and experience the work of the future

11.12.2017 | Event News

Innovative strategies to tackle parasitic worms

08.12.2017 | Event News

AKL’18: The opportunities and challenges of digitalization in the laser industry

07.12.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Long-lived storage of a photonic qubit for worldwide teleportation

12.12.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Multi-year submarine-canyon study challenges textbook theories about turbidity currents

12.12.2017 | Earth Sciences

Electromagnetic water cloak eliminates drag and wake

12.12.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>