Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

The first module of CMS superconducting magnet is leaving towards Cern

21.01.2004


A huge solenoid, which will hold the world record of stored energy



The first module of the five constituting the CMS superconducting magnet is sailing on January 21st of from Genova port to Cern. CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) is one of the experiments that will take place at the accelerator Lhc (Large Hadron Collider), under construction at Cern in Geneva. The device will arrive after a 10-days travel. One of the most ambitious goals of CMS is to provide information about the elusive Higgs boson: the elementary particle which is associated with the mechanism giving rise to the masses of all particles. The theoretical models predicted its existence, but it has not been directly observed yet.

Cms will analyse the products of the collisions of the proton beams steered in Lhc. It will reconstruct their tracks and measure their energy. The superconducting magnet, containing the heart of Cms experiment generates a very high magnetic field, necessary to recognize the particles produced by the collisions. Indeed the tracks of the charged particles crossing a magnetic field are deflected in different ways according to their mass and charge. Therefore, observing particles tracks we can trace back to their identity. To obtain observable deflections we need a magnetic field as high as the energy of the outgoing particles. Since in Lhc particles beams with a very high energy are produced and made to collide (these particles in a very small scale reproduce the conditions of our universe in the very first instants of its birth) it is necessary to have a very high magnetic field.


The superconducting magnet is the result of an international cooperation among different research centres. The participants are in fact the Infn (National Institute for Nuclear Physics) the Cern, the Cea (Commissariat pour l’Energie Atomic), the Eth-Z (Polytechnic of Zurich), with the cooperation of Ansaldo Superconductors of Genova. The latter was entrusted with the construction of the five modules constituting the magnet and with the preparation of an area of about 1.500 square meters for their construction.

Besides producing a very high magnetic field, the magnet must have extraordinary sizes, so that it can contain the whole of the detectors necessary to carry out precise measurements. Therefore Cms has an inside diameter of 6.3 meters, a length of 12.5 meters and generates a magnetic field of 4 T (about 80.000 times stronger than the Earth’s). Once completed, the Cms superconducting magnet will boast a notable record: with its 2.6 Gigajoule of energy it will hold the world record of energy ever stored in a magnet. Another feature of this apparatus is that it must operate at a very low temperature, so that the cables, where the electric current flows, can be in a particular status named superconductor. Thanks to this characteristic, the high current necessary to generate the required magnetic field can flow trough a few wires of about a millimetre of diameter. If a superconducting material was not used, cables of so huge sizes would be needed, to preclude the construction of the entire structure.

The notable sizes of the superconducting solenoid representing the “living part” of the magnet, required a modular construction in order to allow the transportation from the fabrication site to the Cern laboratories. “A long work of engineering optimization was necessary leading us to subdivide the solenoid into five modules of length 2.5 meters and of weight 45 tonnes. The modules will be constructed and transported one by one to Cern, where the assembling will take place” says Pasquale Fabbricatore, Infn researcher in Genova. In particular Infn is responsible for the activities of design and construction of the so-called cold mass, i.e. the winding and the mechanical structures that will be cooled at – 268 centigrade degrees (4.2 kelvin degrees).

The construction of the superconducting magnet of Cms ha required the development of innovative technologies. “Since a very high current flows in the superconductor magnet, and since the produced magnetic field is so high and the device is so large, inside the solenoid high electromagnetic forces are generated causing mechanical deformation that could make it not working. In order to prevent this problem the standard solution was putting a reinforcing mechanical structure containing the solenoid. In our case this would not have been sufficient. In order to avoid also the smallest deformation, making the cables loosing superconducting properties the reinforcement has been inserted directly inside the cables: an innovative solution requiring remarkable technical skills. However, at this point it has become very difficult to wind the cable in the right way, so it has been necessary to develop a sophisticated completely automate winding system allowing us to perform the work with high geometrical precision”, concludes Pasquale Fabbricatore.

Pasquale Fabbricatore | alfa
Further information:
http://www.infn.it

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Ultra-compact phase modulators based on graphene plasmons
27.06.2017 | ICFO-The Institute of Photonic Sciences

nachricht Smooth propagation of spin waves using gold
26.06.2017 | Toyohashi University of Technology

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can we see monkeys from space? Emerging technologies to map biodiversity

An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.

Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Touch Displays WAY-AX and WAY-DX by WayCon

27.06.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Drones that drive

27.06.2017 | Information Technology

Ultra-compact phase modulators based on graphene plasmons

27.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>