Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Extremely large astronomical telescopes a step closer

05.12.2002


Astronomers think big all the time: it’s their job. And on 13th December, at a meeting hosted by the Royal Astronomical Society in London, a group of them will juggle with some truly astounding large numbers. On this occasion, though, they won’t be discussing the distances to remote galaxies, but the phenomenal sizes of the telescopes they want to build so they can explore the universe to a level of detail previous generations of astronomers would never have dreamt possible. Announcing a significant development, Professor Gerry Gilmore of Cambridge University will tell the meeting that Europe’s astronomers have just agreed to join forces in a single project to design a new generation of ground-based optical/infrared telescopes, the Extremely Large Telescope.



The largest telescopes operating currently (the two Keck Telescopes in Hawaii) have segmented mirrors 10 metres across. Now, astronomers around the world are working towards a giant leap for astronomy - ’extremely large telescopes’ (ELTs) up to 100 metres across, 10 times bigger than the Kecks. According to Dr Adrian Russell, Director of the UK Astronomy Technology Centre (UK ATC) in Edinburgh, a telescope that large will take up more glass than has been used in all the telescopes built in the history of astronomy put together.

In Europe, several projects have been under study for some years, each aimed at identifying the key technological and organisational advances that must be met to achieve such a big step . From this month, the two main projects - Euro-50, led from Sweden, and OWL, led from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) - are joining forces with colleagues throughout Europe to create a single project, which will develop a proposal for substantial additional funding from the European Union.


"An ELT facility will revolutionise astronomy with its ability to collect light from faint objects and distinguish details in its images that have never been seen before", says Eli Atad who is Head of the Applied Optics Group at the UK ATC and co-organiser of the meeting.

But ELTs are not just desirable, say astronomers: they are vital. The key to understanding a remote astronomical object is its spectrum. Collecting enough light to spread into a spectrum requires a much larger telescope than recording an ordinary image. "The largest telescopes we have today are struggling to obtain spectra of the faintest objects observable with the Hubble Space Telescope," says Dr Tim Hawarden, Project Scientist for ELTs at the ATC and a speaker at the meeting. "Hubble’s successor, the James Webb Space Telescope, begins operation in less than 10 years. It will discover objects much fainter than Hubble can see and the problem of acquiring spectra will get ten times worse. To make the most of discoveries with the James Webb Space Telescope, it’s essential to have ELTs operating on the ground at the same time."

As is the case with the Keck Telescopes, the mirrors of the Extremely Large Telescopes of the future will not be a single huge disc of glass, but will consist of thousands of hexagonal glass ’tiles’. "The technology exists", says Eli Atad, "but the mass production of mirror segments is a challenge."

"We have to prove that the key technologies are viable and affordable," says Gerry Gilmore, who chairs the steering committee for the new combined European ELT project. "In particular, we have to demonstrate that the huge number of components needed for an ELT can be built taking advantage of industrial-scale efficiencies. The challenge is as much managerial and industrial as it is technical. But it must be met if Europe’s astronomers are to have the tools they need to keep abreast of international scientific developments."

"The potential payoffs from ELTs can fairly be described as awesome" says Tim Hawarden. "For example, we may be able to see Earth-like planets, if there are any, in orbit around stars up to tens of light years away, and perhaps even find out what their atmospheres are made of. Just how large we can make the new giant telescopes is still a matter for debate, and that is part of what the meeting on 13th December is all about."

Jacqueline Mitton | alfa
Further information:
http://www.roe.ac.uk/atc/ras2002/

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Space radiation won't stop NASA's human exploration
18.10.2017 | NASA/Johnson Space Center

nachricht Study shows how water could have flowed on 'cold and icy' ancient Mars
18.10.2017 | Brown University

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Osaka university researchers make the slipperiest surfaces adhesive

18.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

Space radiation won't stop NASA's human exploration

18.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Los Alamos researchers and supercomputers help interpret the latest LIGO findings

18.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>