Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:


Making Quantum Connections


The speed of information in a spin network

In quantum mechanics, interactions between particles can give rise to entanglement, which is a strange type of connection that could never be described by a non-quantum, classical theory. These connections, called quantum correlations, are present in entangled systems even if the objects are not physically linked (with wires, for example). Entanglement is at the heart of what distinguishes purely quantum systems from classical ones; it is why they are potentially useful, but it sometimes makes them very difficult to understand.

Image credit: S. Kelley/JQI

(1) Using a laser, the ion spin chain is optically pumped to a spin state that is uncorrelated with respect to the spin-spin interactions. (2) The system is suddenly perturbed by lasers, turning on global spin-spin interaction. (3) After the spin system evolves for various lengths of time (t1…tn), the spin state of each ion is captured with a CCD camera. The researchers can directly observe the spin-spin correlations propagating across the ion chain.

Physicists are pretty adept at controlling quantum systems and even making certain entangled states. Now JQI researchers*, led by theorist Alexey Gorshkov and experimentalist Christopher Monroe, are putting these skills to work to explore the dynamics of correlated quantum systems. What does it mean for objects to interact locally versus globally? How do local and global interactions translate into larger, increasingly connected networks? How fast can certain entanglement patterns form?

These are the kinds of questions that the Monroe and Gorshkov teams are asking. Their recent results investigating how information flows through a quantum many-body system are published this week in the journal Nature (10.1038/nature13450), and in a second paper to appear in Physical Review Letters.

Researchers can engineer a rich selection of interactions in ultracold atom experiments, allowing them to explore the behavior of complex and massively intertwined quantum systems. In the experimental work from Monroe’s group, physicists examined how quickly quantum connections formed in a crystal of eleven ytterbium ions confined in an electromagnetic trap.

The researchers used laser beams to implement interactions between the ions. Under these conditions, the system is described by certain types of ‘spin’ models, which are a vital mathematical representation of numerous physical phenomena including magnetism. Here, each atomic ion has isolated internal energy levels that represent the various states of spin.

In the presence of carefully chosen laser beams the ion spins can influence their neighbors, both near and far. In fact, tuning the strength and form of this spin-spin interaction is a key feature of the design. In Monroe's lab, physicists can study different types of correlated states within a single pristine quantum environment.

To see dynamics the researchers initially prepared the ion spin system in an uncorrelated state. Next, they abruptly turned on a global spin-spin interaction. The system is effectively pushed off-balance by such a fast change and the spins react, evolving under the new conditions.The team took snapshots of the ion spins at different times and observed the speed at which quantum correlations grew.

The spin models themselves do not have an explicitly built-in limit on how fast such information can propagate. The ultimate limit, in both classical and quantum systems, is given by the speed of light. However, decades ago, physicists showed that a slower information speed limit emerges due to some types of spin-spin interactions, similar to sound propagation in mechanical systems.

While the limits are better known in the case where spins predominantly influence their closest neighbors, calculating constraints on information propagation in the presence of more extended interactions remains challenging. Intuitively, the more an object interacts with other distant objects, the faster the correlations between distant regions of a network should form.

Indeed, the experimental group observes that long-range interactions provide a comparative speed-up for sending information across the ion-spin crystal. In the paper appearing in Physical Review Letters, Gorshkov’s team improves existing theory to much more accurately predict the speed limits for correlation formation, in the presence of interactions ranging from nearest-neighbor to long-range.

Verifying and forming a complete understanding of quantum information propagation is certainly not the end of the story; this also has many profound implications for our understanding of quantum systems more generally. For example, the growth of entanglement, which is a form of information that must obey the bounds described above, is intimately related to the difficulty of modeling quantum systems on a computer.

Dr. Michael Foss-Feig explains, “From a theorist’s perspective, the experiments are cool because if you want to do something with a quantum simulator that actually pushes beyond what calculations can tell you, doing dynamics with long-range interacting systems is expected to be a pretty good way to do that. In this case, entanglement can grow to a point that our methods for calculating things about a many-body system break down.”

Theorist Dr. Zhexuan Gong states that in the context of both works, “We are trying to put bounds on how fast correlation and entanglement can form in a generic many-body system. These bounds are very useful because with long-range interactions, our mathematical tools and state-of-the-art computers can hardly succeed at predicting the properties of the system.

We would then need to either use these theoretical bounds or a laboratory quantum simulator to tell us what interesting properties a large and complicated network of spins possess. These bounds will also serve as a guideline on what interaction pattern one should achieve experimentally to greatly speed up information propagation and entanglement generation, both key for building a fast quantum computer or a fast quantum network.”

From the experimental side, Dr. Phil Richerme gives his perspective, “We are trying to build the world’s best experimental platform for evolving the Schrodinger equation [math that describes how properties of a quantum system change in time]. We have this ability to set up the system in a known state and turn the crank and let it evolve and then make measurements at the end. For system sizes not much larger than what we have here, doing this becomes impossible for a conventional computer.”

This news item was written by E. Edwards/JQI.

Emily Edwards | Eurek Alert!
Further information:

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Move over, lasers: Scientists can now create holograms from neutrons, too
21.10.2016 | National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

nachricht Finding the lightest superdeformed triaxial atomic nucleus
20.10.2016 | The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: New 3-D wiring technique brings scalable quantum computers closer to reality

Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.

"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...

Im Focus: Scientists develop a semiconductor nanocomposite material that moves in response to light

In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.

A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...

Im Focus: Diamonds aren't forever: Sandia, Harvard team create first quantum computer bridge

By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.

"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...

Im Focus: New Products - Highlights of COMPAMED 2016

COMPAMED has become the leading international marketplace for suppliers of medical manufacturing. The trade fair, which takes place every November and is co-located to MEDICA in Dusseldorf, has been steadily growing over the past years and shows that medical technology remains a rapidly growing market.

In 2016, the joint pavilion by the IVAM Microtechnology Network, the Product Market “High-tech for Medical Devices”, will be located in Hall 8a again and will...

Im Focus: Ultra-thin ferroelectric material for next-generation electronics

'Ferroelectric' materials can switch between different states of electrical polarization in response to an external electric field. This flexibility means they show promise for many applications, for example in electronic devices and computer memory. Current ferroelectric materials are highly valued for their thermal and chemical stability and rapid electro-mechanical responses, but creating a material that is scalable down to the tiny sizes needed for technologies like silicon-based semiconductors (Si-based CMOS) has proven challenging.

Now, Hiroshi Funakubo and co-workers at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, in collaboration with researchers across Japan, have conducted experiments to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>



Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

Agricultural Trade Developments and Potentials in Central Asia and the South Caucasus

14.10.2016 | Event News

World Health Summit – Day Three: A Call to Action

12.10.2016 | Event News

Latest News

Resolving the mystery of preeclampsia

21.10.2016 | Health and Medicine

Stanford researchers create new special-purpose computer that may someday save us billions

21.10.2016 | Information Technology

From ancient fossils to future cars

21.10.2016 | Materials Sciences

More VideoLinks >>>