Elements heavier than iron come into being only in powerful stellar explosions, supernovae. During nuclear reactions all kinds of short-lived atomic nuclei are formed, including more stable combinations – the so-called magic numbers – predicted by theory. Yet here, too, there are exceptions: the islands of inversion. Headed by physicists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), an international team of scientists has now taken a closer look at the island that was first discovered. They have now published their results in Physical Review Letters.
A new discovery, and the questions it raises, could help explain in greater detail how elements are synthesized in stellar explosions -- such as the supernova that left behind the Crab Nebula.
All chemical elements known on earth come from space. The most common elements in the universe, hydrogen and helium, were created shortly after the Big Bang. Other elements, such as carbon and oxygen, came into existence later, through the fusion of atomic nuclei inside stars. Elements heavier than iron owe their emergence to gigantic stellar explosions, known as supernovae. These include, for instance, the precious metals gold and silver or the radioactive uranium.
The cauldron of a supernova gives birth to a whole array of high-mass atomic nuclei, which decay to stable elements via different short-lived intermediate stages. Analogous to the shell model for electrons, nuclear physicists developed a model that predicts particularly high stability for specific combinations in the number of neutrons and protons. These are the "magic numbers": the shells are full and the nuclei nearly spherical.
However, there are "magic" nuclei that deviate from the expected shell structure. An international collaboration under the direction of physicists from the Cluster of Excellence Origin and Structure of the Universe at the TUM took a closer look at the nuclei in a domain with the magic neutron number 20, also known as the "island of inversion." Their measurements with REX-ISOLDE, an accelerator for radioactive ion beams at CERN, led to surprising results.
In their experiment the scientists studied the neutron-rich isotope magnesium-32 by shooting a magnesium-30 beam at a titanium film loaded with tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. In a so-called pair transfer reaction, two neutrons are knocked off the tritium and transferred to the magnesium nucleus, thus turning it into magnesium-32.
The neutron-rich isotope magnesium-32, whose nucleus has 20 neutrons and 12 protons, is supposed to be magic and, as such, should have a spherical shape. However, the lowest energy state in magnesium-32 is not spherical, but deformed. The nucleus is reminiscent of an egg-shaped American football. The spherical configuration was not supposed to ensue until higher states of energy were reached.
For the first time ever, the scientists succeeded in confirming the existence of the spherical magnesium-32 nucleus. What's more, the spherical magnesium-32 nucleus was generated at a much lower energy level than theoretically predicted. This result has yet again put a question mark on the theoretical models describing changes in shell structure in this and other regions of the table of nuclides.
"We were overjoyed to have finally succeeded in confirming the existence of the spherical magnesium-32 nucleus," says Professor Kruecken, Chair of Hadrons and Nuclear Physics at the TU Muenchen. "But these insights present new challenges to us physicists. In order to be able to predict the exact course of element synthesis in stellar explosions, we need to better understand the mechanism that causes the changes in shell structure." The scientists assume it will need a series of further experiments before they can give an unambiguous description of the processes related to the mysterious islands of inversion and new magic numbers.
This work was supported by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany (BMBF) under contracts 06MT238, 06MT9156, 06KY9136I, 06DA9036I06DA9041I, by the German Research Foundation (DFG) via the Cluster of Excellence Origin and Structure of the Universe, by the European Comission within the FP6 through I3-EURONS (contract no. RII3-CT-2004- 506065), by the Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek Vlaanderen (FWO), GOA/2004/03 and IAP P6/23 (Belgium), by the Helmholtz International Center for FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) and the US-Department of Energy under contract number DE-AC02-05CH11231.
Original publication:Discovery of the Shape Coexisting 0+ State in 32Mg by a Two Neutron Transfer Reaction,
Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM) is one of Europe's leading universities. It has roughly 460 professors, 7,500 academic and non-academic staff (including those at the university hospital "Rechts der Isar"), and 26,000 students. It focuses on the engineering sciences, natural sciences, life sciences, medicine, and economic sciences. After winning numerous awards, it was selected as an "Elite University" in 2006 by the Science Council (Wissenschaftsrat) and the German Research Foundation (DFG). The university's global network includes an outpost in Singapore. TUM is dedicated to the ideal of a top-level research based entrepreneurial university. http://www.tum.de
Andreas Battenberg | EurekAlert!
Move over, lasers: Scientists can now create holograms from neutrons, too
21.10.2016 | National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
Finding the lightest superdeformed triaxial atomic nucleus
20.10.2016 | The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.
"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...
In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.
A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...
By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.
"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...
COMPAMED has become the leading international marketplace for suppliers of medical manufacturing. The trade fair, which takes place every November and is co-located to MEDICA in Dusseldorf, has been steadily growing over the past years and shows that medical technology remains a rapidly growing market.
In 2016, the joint pavilion by the IVAM Microtechnology Network, the Product Market “High-tech for Medical Devices”, will be located in Hall 8a again and will...
'Ferroelectric' materials can switch between different states of electrical polarization in response to an external electric field. This flexibility means they show promise for many applications, for example in electronic devices and computer memory. Current ferroelectric materials are highly valued for their thermal and chemical stability and rapid electro-mechanical responses, but creating a material that is scalable down to the tiny sizes needed for technologies like silicon-based semiconductors (Si-based CMOS) has proven challenging.
Now, Hiroshi Funakubo and co-workers at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, in collaboration with researchers across Japan, have conducted experiments to...
14.10.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
12.10.2016 | Event News
21.10.2016 | Health and Medicine
21.10.2016 | Information Technology
21.10.2016 | Materials Sciences