The planet Earth will die – if not before, then when the Sun collapses. This is going to happen in approximately seven billion years. In the universe however the death of suns and planets is an everyday occurance and our solar system partly consists of their remnants.
The end of stars – suns – rich in mass is often a neutron star. These “stars' liches“ demonstrate a high density, in which atoms are extremely compressed. Such neutron stars are no bigger than a small town, but heavier than our sun, as physicist PD Dr. Axel Maas of the Jena University (Germany) points out. He adds: “The atomic nuclei are very densely packed.“ Compared to atoms, like water, the nuclei of neutron stars are as tightly packed as a bus with 1.000 passengers crowded together in comparison to a bus with only the driver on board. In these densely packed atomic nuclei, so-called “nuclear forces“ are at work. They keep the neutron star together and are responsible for its “eternal life“ – and for the last 35 years the strong nuclear interactions were amongst the greatest challenges of theoretical physics.
Together with colleagues from the Universities of Jena and Darmstadt (both Germany) Axel Maas has succeeded in simulating the strong atomic nuclear interactions to enable its calculability while at the same time preserving the typical characteristics of a neutron star. “It is the first theory for such a tight package,“ the Jena Physicist says. Previously simulations trying to specify the matter inside of neutron stars collapsed far too much in size and yielded the wrong properties time and again – even on the most powerful computers. “These simulations didn't work because there are too many atomic nuclei,“ Maas explains the problem, whose solution the world of physics has come closer to due to the calculations of the Jena researchers. To get there, the scientists did so many calculations at the Loewe Center for Science Computing (CSC) in Frankfurt, that it would have taken a single PC approximately 2.500 years to do the same.
“We weren't able to solve the initial problem either,“ Axel Maas concedes, as algorithms are not (yet) powerful enough. However, the Jena physicist who had been researching this problem since 2007 and his colleagues “reached a new level of quality“. They found a “modification of the theory for such a tight package“, Maas says. And thus they enabled nuclear material to be simulated. Most characteristics of the neutron star are being preserved with the Jena method, but now they enabled its calculability.The team accomplished this big step forward by intelligently modifying the nuclear forces and by solving the stacking problem of the atoms. That they were at the same time ’cheating a bit‘, the physicists freely admit. However, Maas firmly believes: “We found the best possible shortcut“. Now they know “what is relevant for the original simulation“.
Black hole spin cranks-up radio volume
15.01.2018 | National Institutes of Natural Sciences
The universe up close
15.01.2018 | Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
What enables electrons to be transferred swiftly, for example during photosynthesis? An interdisciplinary team of researchers has worked out the details of how...
For the first time, scientists have precisely measured the effective electrical charge of a single molecule in solution. This fundamental insight of an SNSF Professor could also pave the way for future medical diagnostics.
Electrical charge is one of the key properties that allows molecules to interact. Life itself depends on this phenomenon: many biological processes involve...
At the JEC World Composite Show in Paris in March 2018, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be focusing on the latest trends and innovations in laser machining of composites. Among other things, researchers at the booth shared with the Aachen Center for Integrative Lightweight Production (AZL) will demonstrate how lasers can be used for joining, structuring, cutting and drilling composite materials.
No other industry has attracted as much public attention to composite materials as the automotive industry, which along with the aerospace industry is a driver...
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) and Tohoku University have developed high-quality GFO epitaxial films and systematically investigated their ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties. They also demonstrated the room-temperature magnetocapacitance effects of these GFO thin films.
Multiferroic materials show magnetically driven ferroelectricity. They are attracting increasing attention because of their fascinating properties such as...
The oceans are the largest global heat reservoir. As a result of man-made global warming, the temperature in the global climate system increases; around 90% of...
08.01.2018 | Event News
11.12.2017 | Event News
08.12.2017 | Event News
16.01.2018 | Materials Sciences
16.01.2018 | Materials Sciences
16.01.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering