Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Targeting tuberculosis 'hotspots' could have widespread benefit

29.05.2012
Reducing tuberculosis transmission in geographic "hotspots" where infections are highest could significantly reduce TB transmission on a broader scale, according to a study led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

An analysis of data from Rio de Janeiro showed that a reduction in TB infections within three high-transmission hotspots could reduce citywide transmission by 9.8 percent over 5 years, and as much as 29 percent over 50 years. The study was published May 28 by the journal PNAS.

"Targeting treatment of 'core groups' as a way to reduce community-wide transmission is common with diseases like HIV and malaria, but is less accepted as a mantra for TB control," said David Dowdy, MD, PhD, ScM, lead author of the study and assistant professor in the Bloomberg School's Department of Epidemiology.

"Our findings suggest that hotspots containing 6 percent of a city's population can be responsible for 35 percent or more of its ongoing TB transmission. Controlling TB in these hotspots may have a similar impact on long-term, community-wide TB incidence as achieving the same targets in the remaining 94 percent of the population."

For the study, Dowdy and his colleagues developed mathematical models for TB transmission using surveillance data from Rio de Janeiro. Each model tested different scenarios for TB transmission between the hotspot and the rest of the community. Co-infection with HIV was also factored into the model.

According to the study, reducing TB transmission rates in the hotspot to those in the general community reduced citywide TB incidence by a mean 2 percent per year over the first 5 years. By year 50, TB incidence was reduced by 29.7 percent, reflecting a 62.8 percent reduction in incidence in the hotspot and a 23.1 percent reduction in the remaining community.

Tuberculosis infects more than 8.8 million people worldwide, resulting in 1.4 million deaths each year. The disease is known to cluster in hotspots typically characterized by crowding, poverty and other illnesses such as HIV. Nevertheless, TB transmission appears to be more homogeneous than that of many other infectious diseases, in which 20 percent of the population may generate 80 percent of infections.

According to Dowdy, "TB may not follow the same '80/20' rule that we see in parasitic or sexually transmitted diseases, but the '35/6' rule seen in our study suggests that targeting hotspots is still the best way to control TB in a community."

The authors of "Heterogeneity in tuberculosis transmission and the role of geographic hotspots in propagating epidemics" are David W. Dowdy, Jonathan E. Golub, Richard Chaisson and Valeria Saraceni.

The research was supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Follow the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health on Facebook at www.facebook.com/JohnHopkinsSPH or on Twitter at www.twitter.com/JohnsHopkinsSPH.

Tim Parsons | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.jhsph.edu

Further reports about: Gates Foundation HIV TB infection health services targeting

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht New study points the way to therapy for rare cancer that targets the young
22.11.2017 | Rockefeller University

nachricht Penn study identifies new malaria parasites in wild bonobos
21.11.2017 | University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Frictional Heat Powers Hydrothermal Activity on Enceladus

Computer simulation shows how the icy moon heats water in a porous rock core

Heat from the friction of rocks caused by tidal forces could be the “engine” for the hydrothermal activity on Saturn's moon Enceladus. This presupposes that...

Im Focus: Nanoparticles help with malaria diagnosis – new rapid test in development

The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.

Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Underwater acoustic localization of marine mammals and vehicles

23.11.2017 | Information Technology

Enhancing the quantum sensing capabilities of diamond

23.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Meadows beat out shrubs when it comes to storing carbon

23.11.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>