Lauretta Luck, who carried out her research at the University of Western Sydney, Australia, points out that the STAMP violence assessment framework could have much wider applications than just hospitals.
STAMP - which stands for Staring and eye contact, Tone and volume of voice, Anxiety, Mumbling and Pacing – could be used by any professionals in potentially violent situations, such as law enforcement and social services.
The five-month research project was carried out in a 33-bedded emergency department in a public hospital serving a large rural, remote and metropolitan community in Australia.
It serves a multi-cultural community, which includes a high number of tourists and seasonal workers as well as a large metropolitan population.
Luck carried out 290 hours of observation and interviewed 20 Registered Nurses who agreed to take part in the study.
“During my time in the department there were 16 violent episodes aimed at staff taking part in the study” says Luck. “Because I was on the spot I was able to obtain feedback from them while the event was still fresh in their minds. They were able to tell me how they perceived the event and how they tried to handle it.
“Many more episodes were observed during the study period and I was keen to note how staff managed to defuse potentially violent episodes”.
Key findings of the study, co-authored by Professor Debra Jackson (University of Western Sydney) and Professor Kim Usher (James Cook University), included:
• Staring was an important early indicator of potential violence. It was frequently noted in observational data and featured in nine of the 16 observed violent episodes. Nurses felt that staring was used to intimidate them into prompter action – when they responded to this cue violence tended to be avoided.
• Lack of eye contact was also an issue and was associated with anger and passive resistance. However, it was noted that there can be cultural reasons for avoiding eye contact and it was important to differentiate these from other cases.
• Tone and volume of voice was associated with 13 of the 16 violent episodes. Most of the cases involved raised voices and yelling but two involved sarcastic and caustic replies.
• Many of the people who attended the emergency department were anxious and nurses were acutely aware of how stressful a visit to casualty could be. They normally intervened before anxiety reached dangerous levels, but one patient’s anxiety did escalate into violence.
• However when anxiety levels were raised by the disorientation associated with conditions such as mental illness, substance misuse, dementia, epilepsy, diabetes and head injuries, this became a real issue. Nine violent episodes involved disorientated people with raised anxiety levels.
• Eleven of the 16 patients who became violent were observed mumbling, using slurred or incoherent speech or repeatedly asking the same question or making the same statements. Mumbling was perceived to be a sign of mounting frustration and a cue for violence.
• Pacing was seen as an indication of mounting agitation and was observed in nine of the 16 episodes analysed in detail. Other physical indicators included staggering, waving arms around or pulling away from healthcare staff trying to treat them.
“Violence towards healthcare staff and other professionals such as police officers and social security staff are an increasing part of daily life” says Luck.
“We feel that the STAMP system provides an easy to remember checklist that can be used in a wide range of potentially stressful situations to provide an initial indication of possible violence.“Recognising the early signs that can lead to a violent episode can give staff
Annette Whibley | alfa
Correct connections are crucial
26.06.2017 | Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin
One gene closer to regenerative therapy for muscular disorders
01.06.2017 | Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.
Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...
Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.
Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...
Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.
As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...
Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.
With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...
Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine
Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...
19.06.2017 | Event News
13.06.2017 | Event News
13.06.2017 | Event News
27.06.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering
27.06.2017 | Information Technology
27.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy