Xylitol is a sugar alcohol that is produced by reduction of the sugar xylose, or wood sugar. Xylitol occurs naturally in fruits and berries, such as pears and strawberries. It is used in sugarless sweets, above all in chewing gum and lozenges. The dissertation studies what effects the substance has on the ecology of the oral cavity and its role in preventing tooth decay (caries).
In a series of studies on children and adolescents, samples of saliva and plaque were examined. Among other findings, it was determined that a daily intake of 3.4 grams of xylitol was sufficient to change the consistency of the bacteria, but this did not lead to a lower production of lactic acid in plaque. In another study it was shown that a single higher intake of xylitol for a limited time reduced the degree of acidity in plaque between teeth.
In a field study involving 128 children aged 7-12, the subjects were asked to chew gum three times a day, with a total daily dose of 6.0 grams of xylitol. The amount of plaque and the production of lactic acid declined dramatically during the trial period. After four weeks, the proportion of caries-producing bacteria was down by a third, but six months afterward the values had returned to the original levels. Despite the relatively high dose of xylitol used, no negative effects were reported, such as stomach troubles.
Products with xylitol as the sole sweetener are uncommon on the Swedish market today. In the most common sugarless products, xylitol accounts for roughly a third of the sweetening.
The studies nevertheless warrant the following recommendations:
o A daily intake of xylitol is recommended as a supplement for patients at high risk for tooth decay.
o Xylitol products that actively stimulate the secretion of saliva should be the first choice, such as chewing gum.
o About 6 g of xylitol per day is needed to counteract the production of acid and thereby reduce the risk of cavities.
o The daily intake should be distributed over at least three occasions.
o The products should contain as much xylitol as possible and not be mixed with other sweeteners.
Pernilla Lif Holgerson is a dentist and doctoral candidate at the Department of Odontology, Division of Pedodontics, phone: +46 (0)90-785 62 48; cell phone: +46 (0)70-224 34 61; e-mail: email@example.com
The dissertation will be submitted on Friday, February 23, at the Department of Odontology, Umeå University. It is titled: Xylitol and its Effect on Oral Ecology¬-Clinical Studies in Children and Adolescents.
The external examiner is Associate Professor Eva Söderling, Institute of Dentistry, Åbo University, Åbo, Finland.
Hans Fällman | idw
Penn study identifies new malaria parasites in wild bonobos
21.11.2017 | University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
NIST scientists discover how to switch liver cancer cell growth from 2-D to 3-D structures
17.11.2017 | National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.
Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....
The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...
Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.
That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...
Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.
During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....
The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.
Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...
15.11.2017 | Event News
15.11.2017 | Event News
30.10.2017 | Event News
21.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
21.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
21.11.2017 | Life Sciences