Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Teens who smoke have increased risk of developing asthma

16.11.2006
Children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy at even higher risk

Children and teens who smoke cigarettes have nearly four times the risk of developing asthma in their teens compared to children and teens who do not smoke, researchers at the University of Southern California (USC) report.

Lead researcher Frank Gilliland, M.D., Ph.D., professor of preventive medicine at the Keck School of Medicine of USC, also found that children who were exposed to cigarette smoke in their mothers' wombs have even higher risks of developing asthma, almost nine times the risk of those who didn't smoke. Their results appear Nov. 15 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

"We've been studying this group of children long enough that now some of them have started smoking," Gilliland says. "We found that teens who started smoking have a four times higher risk of developing asthma compared to teens who don't smoke. But if those same teenagers were also exposed to tobacco smoke before they were born, they get more than a double whammy - nine times the risk of getting asthma."

While cigarette smoke is known to have negative effects on lungs, including inflammation and hyper-responsive airways, evidence linking smoking and the development of asthma has been mixed. Some of that difficulty lies in trying to separate out confounding variables in adult smokers over their lifetimes, Gilliland and his co-researchers say. By studying adolescents, who had a shorter history of smoking, the researchers were able to make a clearer connection.

"These findings suggest that the harmful effects of cigarette smoking are not limited to those who are long-term heavy smokers," says National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Director David A. Schwartz, M.D. "The study results provide clear evidence of a link between short-term smoking and respiratory illness in adolescents and young adults."

The study draws upon data from the Children's Health Study (CHS), a longitudinal study of respiratory health among children in 12 southern California communities. During annual school visits the researchers collected data on demographic factors, medical histories, household exposures, cigarette smoking and newly diagnosed asthma. They followed a group of 2,609 children and adolescents who were between the ages of 8 to 15 at the start of the study and had no prior history of asthma or wheezing.

The majority of the children were non-Hispanic white or Hispanic white. About 14 percent of children reportedly were exposed to smoking before birth during their mother's pregnancy, and 17.5 percent of children were exposed to secondhand smoke.

During the course of the study, about 28 percent of children reported smoking at any time during their life, 13.8 percent reported smoking weekly, and 6.9 percent reported smoking regularly (at least seven cigarettes per week). Children who were exposed to smoke before birth were slightly more likely to become regular smokers.

The children were tracked an average of 6.3 years, and as long as 8 years, depending on their age at joining the study and whether they continued participating. Over that time, 255 new cases of asthma were reported, with a greater percentage of girls than boys being diagnosed.

The increased risk for newly diagnosed asthma among regular, frequent smokers was largest among children who had been exposed to maternal smoking during their gestation. Children exposed in utero and who became frequent regular smokers (seven or more cigarettes per week) had an 8.8-fold increased risk compared to unexposed nonsmokers. In contrast, children who were not exposed in utero showed a small and statistically non-significant 1.2-fold increase in risk from frequent regular smoking.

Interestingly, children who were regular smokers but who also had a history of allergies were not found to have an increased risk of asthma.

The link between regular smoking and asthma was not substantially affected by adjusting for family income and other demographic factors, birth weight, gestational age, physical activity levels, family history of asthma, pets, or exposure to pollutants or secondhand smoke.

"The clinical and public health implications for our findings are far-reaching," the authors conclude. "Effective tobacco control efforts focusing on the prevention of smoking in children, adolescents and women of childbearing age are urgently needed to reduce the number of these preventable cases of asthma." The authors suggested that teens might be motivated to refrain from taking up smoking if they understand that smoking can cause them to develop asthma and perhaps even force them to limit their activities.

Jennifer Chan | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.usc.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Penn vet research identifies new target for taming Ebola
12.01.2017 | University of Pennsylvania

nachricht The strange double life of Dab2
10.01.2017 | University of Miami Miller School of Medicine

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

Im Focus: How to inflate a hardened concrete shell with a weight of 80 t

At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).

Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...

Im Focus: Bacterial Pac Man molecule snaps at sugar

Many pathogens use certain sugar compounds from their host to help conceal themselves against the immune system. Scientists at the University of Bonn have now, in cooperation with researchers at the University of York in the United Kingdom, analyzed the dynamics of a bacterial molecule that is involved in this process. They demonstrate that the protein grabs onto the sugar molecule with a Pac Man-like chewing motion and holds it until it can be used. Their results could help design therapeutics that could make the protein poorer at grabbing and holding and hence compromise the pathogen in the host. The study has now been published in “Biophysical Journal”.

The cells of the mouth, nose and intestinal mucosa produce large quantities of a chemical called sialic acid. Many bacteria possess a special transport system...

Im Focus: Newly proposed reference datasets improve weather satellite data quality

UMD, NOAA collaboration demonstrates suitability of in-orbit datasets for weather satellite calibration

"Traffic and weather, together on the hour!" blasts your local radio station, while your smartphone knows the weather halfway across the world. A network of...

Im Focus: Repairing defects in fiber-reinforced plastics more efficiently

Fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) are frequently used in the aeronautic and automobile industry. However, the repair of workpieces made of these composite materials is often less profitable than exchanging the part. In order to increase the lifetime of FRP parts and to make them more eco-efficient, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) and the Apodius GmbH want to combine a new measuring device for fiber layer orientation with an innovative laser-based repair process.

Defects in FRP pieces may be production or operation-related. Whether or not repair is cost-effective depends on the geometry of the defective area, the tools...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

Nothing will happen without batteries making it happen!

05.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Multiregional brain on a chip

16.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

New technology enables 5-D imaging in live animals, humans

16.01.2017 | Information Technology

Researchers develop environmentally friendly soy air filter

16.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>