Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

AIDS vaccine delivers

17.01.2002


The HIV virus: killing cells laden with these particles may form a key part of future AIDS vaccination strategies.
© SPL


Cellular attack tactic keeps virus at bay.

A new AIDS vaccine could be one of the most promising yet. The drug’s effects in monkeys suggest that killing virus-laden cells may form a key part of future vaccination strategies.

Vaccinated monkeys survived a usually lethal infection with a monkey-human hybrid virus, SHIV. Their primed immune system kept virus levels below detection, Emilio Emini of Merck Research Laboratories in West Point, Pennsylvania, and his team now report1. The results are some of the most encouraging to come out of AIDS vaccine research.



But doubts have already been voiced. Low-lying virus can change to elude the immune response, argue Dan Barouch of Harvard Medical School in Boston and his team. A year after they gave eight animals a similar vaccination, a mutant form of the virus emerged, killing one of the monkeys2.

"This finding should be a reality check rather than a death knell," Barouch says, adding that the technique can be modified to block the emergence of mutant viruses. Future attempts could hit several different SIV proteins to prevent the virus escaping. Both of the latest vaccines targeted a single protein.

Emini is already pursuing this goal. But like multi-drug-resistant bacteria, HIV could conceivably outwit even a broadly targeted vaccine, although this is less likely. Whether the vaccines tested in the monkeys will be as effective in humans, however, is unknown.

Troubled history

AIDS is notoriously difficult to vaccinate against. Initial attempts took a conventional approach by injecting a single HIV surface protein to trigger the animals’ immune system into producing antibodies that would attack the virus during a subsequent infection. But HIV evades antibodies by hiding the proteins that the antibodies latch onto and by evolving new strains.

"HIV turned out to be much more complicated," says vaccine researcher Jeffrey Lifson of the National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Maryland. In the past few years, vaccine hunters have switched to a different tack that simulates the way the body naturally attempts to deal with HIV infection - namely, stimulating the immune system to strike virus-infected cells.

Emini’s team achieved this by using a harmless virus to deliver SIV DNA direct to specific immune cells. "It looks encouraging," says Lifson.

Unfortunately, as with any vaccine that keeps virus levels in check, rather than preventing infection, there is the risk that the pathogen will re-emerge. "It’s an ominous question to ask about the whole strategy," comments Lifson. Nonetheless, such a vaccine could in theory defer the onset of AIDS and cut the risk of HIV spreading.

The antibody approach may still bear fruit if it can hit essential, unchanging parts of the virus. Meanwhile, the ultimate ideal remains a vaccine that triggers both arms of the immune system - antibodies and cell attack.

References

  1. Shiver, J. W. et al. Replication-incompetent adenoviral vaccine vector elicits effective anti-immunodeficiency-virus immunity. Nature, 415, 331 - 335, (2002).
  2. Barouch, D. H. et al. Eventual AIDS vaccine failure in a rhesus monkey by viral escape from cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Nature, 415, 335 - 339, (2002).

HELEN PEARSON | © Nature News Service

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Organ-on-a-chip mimics heart's biomechanical properties
23.02.2017 | Vanderbilt University

nachricht Researchers identify cause of hereditary skeletal muscle disorder
22.02.2017 | Klinikum der Universität München

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

New risk factors for anxiety disorders

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

MWC 2017: 5G Capital Berlin

24.02.2017 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>