Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

AIDS vaccine delivers

17.01.2002


The HIV virus: killing cells laden with these particles may form a key part of future AIDS vaccination strategies.
© SPL


Cellular attack tactic keeps virus at bay.

A new AIDS vaccine could be one of the most promising yet. The drug’s effects in monkeys suggest that killing virus-laden cells may form a key part of future vaccination strategies.

Vaccinated monkeys survived a usually lethal infection with a monkey-human hybrid virus, SHIV. Their primed immune system kept virus levels below detection, Emilio Emini of Merck Research Laboratories in West Point, Pennsylvania, and his team now report1. The results are some of the most encouraging to come out of AIDS vaccine research.



But doubts have already been voiced. Low-lying virus can change to elude the immune response, argue Dan Barouch of Harvard Medical School in Boston and his team. A year after they gave eight animals a similar vaccination, a mutant form of the virus emerged, killing one of the monkeys2.

"This finding should be a reality check rather than a death knell," Barouch says, adding that the technique can be modified to block the emergence of mutant viruses. Future attempts could hit several different SIV proteins to prevent the virus escaping. Both of the latest vaccines targeted a single protein.

Emini is already pursuing this goal. But like multi-drug-resistant bacteria, HIV could conceivably outwit even a broadly targeted vaccine, although this is less likely. Whether the vaccines tested in the monkeys will be as effective in humans, however, is unknown.

Troubled history

AIDS is notoriously difficult to vaccinate against. Initial attempts took a conventional approach by injecting a single HIV surface protein to trigger the animals’ immune system into producing antibodies that would attack the virus during a subsequent infection. But HIV evades antibodies by hiding the proteins that the antibodies latch onto and by evolving new strains.

"HIV turned out to be much more complicated," says vaccine researcher Jeffrey Lifson of the National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Maryland. In the past few years, vaccine hunters have switched to a different tack that simulates the way the body naturally attempts to deal with HIV infection - namely, stimulating the immune system to strike virus-infected cells.

Emini’s team achieved this by using a harmless virus to deliver SIV DNA direct to specific immune cells. "It looks encouraging," says Lifson.

Unfortunately, as with any vaccine that keeps virus levels in check, rather than preventing infection, there is the risk that the pathogen will re-emerge. "It’s an ominous question to ask about the whole strategy," comments Lifson. Nonetheless, such a vaccine could in theory defer the onset of AIDS and cut the risk of HIV spreading.

The antibody approach may still bear fruit if it can hit essential, unchanging parts of the virus. Meanwhile, the ultimate ideal remains a vaccine that triggers both arms of the immune system - antibodies and cell attack.

References

  1. Shiver, J. W. et al. Replication-incompetent adenoviral vaccine vector elicits effective anti-immunodeficiency-virus immunity. Nature, 415, 331 - 335, (2002).
  2. Barouch, D. H. et al. Eventual AIDS vaccine failure in a rhesus monkey by viral escape from cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Nature, 415, 335 - 339, (2002).

HELEN PEARSON | © Nature News Service

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Rabies viruses reveal wiring in transparent brains
19.01.2017 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn

nachricht On track to heal leukaemia
18.01.2017 | Universitätsspital Bern

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Traffic jam in empty space

New success for Konstanz physicists in studying the quantum vacuum

An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Sustainable Water use in Agriculture in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

19.01.2017 | Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New Study Will Help Find the Best Locations for Thermal Power Stations in Iceland

19.01.2017 | Earth Sciences

Not of Divided Mind

19.01.2017 | Life Sciences

Molecule flash mob

19.01.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>