Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Some children facing bone marrow transplant risk

31.08.2005


St. Jude researchers say dental problems caused by radiation, chemotherapy should be treated before a child undergoes immunosuppression as part of bone marrow transplantation therapy



Many children who undergo bone marrow transplantation (BMT) as part of cancer treatment already have dental abnormalities that leave them vulnerable to potentially life-threatening bacterial infections, according to investigators at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital. A report on this study appears in the prepublication online edition of Bone Marrow Transplantation.

The investigators found that the most common dental problem in children about to undergo BMT was tooth decay, often resulting from neglected oral hygiene and poor nutrition. Tooth decay is especially dangerous in children undergoing BMTs because physicians must first suppress their immune systems to reduce the chance of transplant rejection. Therefore, children about to undergo immunosuppression as part of BMTs should have dental checkups, said Sue C. Kaste, D.O., a member of St. Jude Radiological Sciences. "It’s important to make sure they do not have cavities that could act as doorways to the bloodstream for disease-causing bacteria," she said.


The St. Jude investigators made their findings during a retrospective study of the medical records and X-rays of the entire set of teeth in 259 children (age range 3.2 to 25.9 years) who underwent BMT. The most common diagnosis among these children was leukemia (63 percent); while the other children were found to have solid tumors (14 percent), anemia (8 percent), or brain tumors (3 percent). In addition, one child had retinoblastoma (eye cancer) and one had severe combined immunodeficiency. One hundred fifty of these patients were male, 203 were Caucasians and 38 were African-American.

The St. Jude team found that, before BMT, 150 (57.9 percent) of the 259 patients had dental abnormalities. Among patients who still had their "first" teeth before BMT, 36.4 percent had dental abnormalities; among patients with permanent teeth, 66.7 percent had dental abnormalities; and among patients with both first and permanent teeth, 52.3 percent had abnormalities. There was no difference in frequency of abnormalities in permanent teeth between males (65.5 percent) and females (67.5 percent), nor was there a difference between Caucasians (69 percent) and African-Americans (70 percent).

The most common dental abnormality identified in the study was caries (tooth decay), which was seen in 133 (51 percent) patients. Among other dental problems were abnormal clumps of enamel on the tooth and calcification (hardening) of the tooth pulp (the soft inner matter in teeth containing nerves and blood vessels).

A variety of factors can cause tooth decay in pediatric patients who later undergo BMTs. For example, previous studies by other researchers have found that children receiving chemotherapy and radiation are at increased risk of tooth damage that causes decay. Radiation can also reduce the amount of saliva released by the mouth’s salivary glands, which in turn can lead to growth of decay-causing bacteria.

Some children undergoing cancer treatment also develop ulcers in the lining of their mouths, which discourage them from eating certain foods. Instead, these children prefer sweet foods, which don’t sting, but do promote tooth decay. In addition, some children undergoing cancer treatments must consume high levels of carbohydrates to ensure they get enough calories, which also encourages the growth of decay-causing bacteria.

Since small cuts in the tissue around teeth caused by brushing could become serious sources of blood loss, children are sometimes forbidden to brush their teeth if they suffer from severely reduced levels of platelets--blood cells that trigger clot formation. Finally, young children often cannot brush their own teeth properly, and their parents might fail to brush their children’s teeth.

"Our findings clearly show that children about to undergo bone marrow transplantation should be examined for dental problems that might promote infections," said Christopher C. Rowland, D.D.S., the dentist in the Department of Surgery at St. Jude and a co-author of the paper. "This is also an opportune time to educate patients and parents about proper oral hygiene. Meticulous dental care can minimize the development of therapy-related caries. Follow-up examinations after transplantation and immunosuppression will also help to minimize sources of potential infection."

Other authors of the paper include Mitchell D. Vaughan (University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis); Xin Tong, D. Kumar Srivastava, Gregory A. Hale and Richard Rochester (St. Jude).

Kelly Perry | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.stjude.org

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Penn studies find promise for innovations in liquid biopsies
30.03.2017 | University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

nachricht 'On-off switch' brings researchers a step closer to potential HIV vaccine
30.03.2017 | University of Nebraska-Lincoln

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A Challenging European Research Project to Develop New Tiny Microscopes

The Institute of Semiconductor Technology and the Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, both members of the Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology (LENA), at Technische Universität Braunschweig are partners in a new European research project entitled ChipScope, which aims to develop a completely new and extremely small optical microscope capable of observing the interior of living cells in real time. A consortium of 7 partners from 5 countries will tackle this issue with very ambitious objectives during a four-year research program.

To demonstrate the usefulness of this new scientific tool, at the end of the project the developed chip-sized microscope will be used to observe in real-time...

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

'On-off switch' brings researchers a step closer to potential HIV vaccine

30.03.2017 | Health and Medicine

Penn studies find promise for innovations in liquid biopsies

30.03.2017 | Health and Medicine

An LED-based device for imaging radiation induced skin damage

30.03.2017 | Medical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>