Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Risk of Tuberculosis Doubles in First Year of HIV Infection

20.12.2004


The risk of tuberculosis infection doubles within one year of HIV infection, according to a study published in the Jan. 15 issue of The Journal of Infectious Diseases, now available online. Scientists previously assumed that there was no increase in tuberculosis risk within the first few years of HIV infection. Pam Sonnenberg of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and colleagues were therefore surprised by the results of their research on the two infections, which they conducted in South African gold miners.



The study was large, involving 23,874 miners from four mines, and retrospective in design, drawing its results from the medical records available for each miner. All subjects were black men between 18 and 65 years of age. They were divided into three groups: those who were HIV-negative throughout the study, those who were HIV-positive on study entry, and those whose infection status changed from negative to positive during the study. Miners were followed until they developed pulmonary tuberculosis, left the mines, or died. Tuberculosis incidence not only doubled within the first year of HIV infection but also increased four-fold after two years, with a further slight increase in those infected for longer periods of up to seven years.

Sonnenberg and colleagues explained that several characteristics of the gold mines greatly facilitated their research: a very high incidence of tuberculosis among the miners, due to crowded conditions and other work-related factors; the fact that the miners lived on-site at the mines, making their external environments relatively uniform; and the mines’ provision of free, high-quality health care to the miners, including a voluntary HIV testing program and tuberculosis screening and treatment programs. The unique setting of the gold mines also provides a caveat: because the study population was not diverse and was characterized by unusually high rates of tuberculosis, the results may not be applicable to all individuals with HIV infection.


In an editorial accompanying the study, Diane V. Havlir and colleagues from the University of California San Francisco said that this research suggests a level of immunodeficiency in HIV infection that has not been readily appreciated. They speculated that the risk for developing tuberculosis may increase early in HIV infection because of profound immune dysregulation. Another possible explanation, they noted, is that those who develop tuberculosis within the first year of HIV infection have a rapidly progressing form of HIV disease.

Both the study authors and the editorialists suggested that the results of this research may have major implications for planning public health interventions for the two diseases. “Tuberculosis is a leading cause of death among people infected with HIV worldwide,” said Havlir. “Perhaps the most immediate and universal implication of these data is the need to expand reliable and affordable HIV testing in tuberculosis-endemic areas like the South African gold mines.”

Diana Olson | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.idsociety.org

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Investigators may unlock mystery of how staph cells dodge the body's immune system
22.09.2017 | Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

nachricht Monitoring the heart's mitochondria to predict cardiac arrest?
21.09.2017 | Boston Children's Hospital

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: The pyrenoid is a carbon-fixing liquid droplet

Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.

A warming planet

Im Focus: Highly precise wiring in the Cerebral Cortex

Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.

The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...

Im Focus: Tiny lasers from a gallery of whispers

New technique promises tunable laser devices

Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...

Im Focus: Ultrafast snapshots of relaxing electrons in solids

Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!

When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...

Im Focus: Quantum Sensors Decipher Magnetic Ordering in a New Semiconducting Material

For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.

Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

“Lasers in Composites Symposium” in Aachen – from Science to Application

19.09.2017 | Event News

I-ESA 2018 – Call for Papers

12.09.2017 | Event News

EMBO at Basel Life, a new conference on current and emerging life science research

06.09.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Rainbow colors reveal cell history: Uncovering β-cell heterogeneity

22.09.2017 | Life Sciences

Penn first in world to treat patient with new radiation technology

22.09.2017 | Medical Engineering

Calculating quietness

22.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>