On Friday, November 8, Mats Hallman, Department of Odontology, Jaw Surgery, Umeå University in Sweden, will defend a thesis that presents favorable results from implanting bone powder from calves to anchor tooth implants in humans.
Tooth implants have long been a well-tested method to create permanent teeth in toothless sections of the jaw. In certain cases, however, patients have no bone in which to secure the titanium screws. In these cases it is necessary to rebuild the bone prior to the implant operation. This bone has usually been taken from the patients’ own hip or jaw, which has required further surgery and caused problems where the bone was taken from. Since many of these patients are elderly, complications have often arisen after the operation. This surgery also entails greater costs.
The dissertation scientifically tests whether it is possible to implant bone replacement material, bone powder from calves, instead of using the patients’ own bones. The studies indicate that the methods functions at the cellular level, histologically, and in practice, clinically. When the bone material is packed against the patient’s remaining bone, the bone cells are “fooled” into forming new human bone. The thesis also shows that the supplemental bone resists deterioration (resorption) and functions as an excellent support for tooth implants.
Hans Fällman | alfa
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Controlling electronic current is essential to modern electronics, as data and signals are transferred by streams of electrons which are controlled at high speed. Demands on transmission speeds are also increasing as technology develops. Scientists from the Chair of Laser Physics and the Chair of Applied Physics at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have succeeded in switching on a current with a desired direction in graphene using a single laser pulse within a femtosecond ¬¬ – a femtosecond corresponds to the millionth part of a billionth of a second. This is more than a thousand times faster compared to the most efficient transistors today.
Graphene is up to the job
At the productronica trade fair in Munich this November, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be presenting Laser-Based Tape-Automated Bonding, LaserTAB for short. The experts from Aachen will be demonstrating how new battery cells and power electronics can be micro-welded more efficiently and precisely than ever before thanks to new optics and robot support.
Fraunhofer ILT from Aachen relies on a clever combination of robotics and a laser scanner with new optics as well as process monitoring, which it has developed...
Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
A warming planet
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
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