Neck injuries among vehicle drivers as a result of being rear-ended remain a major problem for victims and cost insurance companies and society huge sums. Bertil Jonsson's dissertation shows that women run three times the risk of incurring debilitating neck injuries compared with men. For both women and men, the findings show that the driver's seat entails twice the risk compared with the front passenger seat.
The dissertation elucidates differences in the sitting position between women and men in the various seats of a car that can provide a partial explanation of the risk differentials observed. Women drivers adjust the driver seat differently than male drivers do: women sit higher and closer to the steering wheel and have the seat back more upright.
Men have a greater distance between the back of their head and the neck support (so-called backset) compared with women, both when the car is stationary and when driving. If the driver holds his/her hands on the upper part of the steering wheel, the backset distance also increases to the head support compared with the passenger position. High backset values are a known risk factor for neck injuries in rear-end collisions.
The scope of the neck to move in a horizontal backward direction (so-called retraction) is different between the sexes, but it is also affected by sitting position. A slouched posture entails a greater distance to the head support and also reduces the scope for free movement backward (retraction). When this scope is exceeded, injuries probably occur.
Current crash dummies used to develop vehicle seats and neck supports, for instance, are geared to men of normal size, but not to women. This is especially true in regard to height. Nor does testing methodology take into consideration differences between the sexes, or differences in sitting position between the driver's seat and the front passenger seat.
The dissertation shows that further research is needed regarding sitting position and the risk of injury. Test methods need to be developed for rear-end collisions, as well as a female crash dummy. The findings provide a foundation for the development of new test methods and protective systems in future vehicles that could reduce the risk of neck injury in rear-end collisions.
Pressofficer Bertil Born; +46-703886058; firstname.lastname@example.org.
Bertil Born | idw
How prenatal maternal infections may affect genetic factors in Autism spectrum disorder
22.03.2017 | University of California - San Diego
22.03.2017 | Empa - Eidgenössische Materialprüfungs- und Forschungsanstalt
Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...
Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...
In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...
20.03.2017 | Event News
14.03.2017 | Event News
07.03.2017 | Event News
22.03.2017 | Materials Sciences
22.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
22.03.2017 | Materials Sciences