Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Newly developed anti-malarial medicine treats toxoplasmosis

05.03.2008
A new drug that will soon enter clinical trials for treatment of malaria also appears to be 10 times more effective than the key medicine in the current gold-standard treatment for toxoplasmosis, a disease caused by a related parasite that infects nearly one-third of all humans—more than two billion people worldwide.

In the March issue of PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, a research team based at the University of Chicago Medical Center shows that the drug, known as JPC-2056, is extremely effective against Toxoplasma gondii, the parasite that causes toxoplasmosis, without toxicity.

"JPC-2056 has the potential to replace the standard treatment of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine," said infectious disease specialist Rima McLeod, professor of ophthalmology at the University of Chicago and senior author of the study. "The drug, taken by mouth, is easily absorbed, bioavailable, and relatively nontoxic. In tissue culture and in mice, it was rapidly effective, markedly reducing numbers of parasites within just a few days."

Untreated mice injected with the parasite "appeared ill," four days after the injection, the authors note, "with ruffled fur and hunched shoulders." Treated mice remained well.

"Studies in tissue culture found no evidence of the parasite or the plaques they produce 52 days after four days of treatment," said co-author Ernest Mui, a researcher in McLeod's laboratory.

"The absence of growth," the authors write, "indicates that this compound is 'cidal' and not merely 'static' for the active form of T. gondii.

The drug inhibits the action of an enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), produced by the family of parasites that includes those that cause toxoplasmosis and malaria. It is structurally distinct from the human DHFR.

"The drug's effect on the malaria and Toxoplasma enzymes is robust," said McLeod. "It has much less effect on the human enzyme."

The new drug was effective against all malaria parasites, even those with multiple mutations that make them resistant to other anti-folate medicines, suggesting that "this family of parasites, including not just Toxoplasma but also various malaria parasites, will not easily develop resistance," she said.

Toxoplasma infection is "probably the most common parasitic infection in the world, causing very significant disease in those who have immature immune systems or who are immune-compromised," McLeod said. "New medications are urgently needed."

The standard medicines to treat the infection can cause severe side effects and many patients become hypersensitive to them. There are no medicines that can eliminate certain latent stages of the parasite's life cycle. There is no vaccine.

T. gondii infects humans through three principal routes: a newly infected pregnant woman passing the infection to her fetus; consumption of undercooked, infected meat; and ingestion of T. gondii oocysts in food, through accidental contamination from cat litter.

"An infected cat can excrete up to 20 million oocysts over two weeks," McLeod said. "Even a single oocyst is infectious and they can remain infectious in water for up to six months and in warm moist soil for up to a year."

Congenital toxoplasmosis, which occurs in an estimated 1 per 5,000 births a year in the United States, can cause severe vision loss, brain damage and even death. The annual cost of caring for these children may exceed $1 billion.

Also at increased risk are people with compromised immune systems, such as those with cancer, autoimmune disease, AIDS or transplant recipients. Even people with normal immune systems can suffer major organ damage from chronic infections. Eye disease leading to loss of sight is caused both during the primary infection and as a result of infection transmitted from mother to child. Recent epidemics in Surinam and French Guiana have been lethal even for young healthy victims. Studies have also found an association between chronic brain infection with Toxoplasma and diseases such as schizophrenia and epilepsy, although cause-and-effect relationships have not been proven.

JPC-2056 was developed in the late 1980s by teams led by Wilbur Milhous and Dennis Kyle of the Walter Reed Army Institute for Research in Silver Spring Maryland (both now at the University of South Florida), and David Jacobus of Jacobus Pharmaceutical Company. The original version was quite toxic, but the researchers found ways to reduce the toxicity and developed an oral version of the drug. Clinical trials using JPC-2056 to treat malaria are scheduled to begin later this year.

This new class of medicine holds "considerable promise for significant advances in the treatment of toxoplasmosis, which damages the eye and the brain," said McLeod, "as well as malaria, which kills one million children each year."

John Easton | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.uchospitals.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Cholesterol-lowering drugs may fight infectious disease
22.08.2017 | Duke University

nachricht Once invincible superbug squashed by 'superteam' of antibiotics
22.08.2017 | University at Buffalo

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Researchers devise microreactor to study formation of methane hydrate

23.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

ShAPEing the future of magnesium car parts

23.08.2017 | Automotive Engineering

New insights into the world of trypanosomes

23.08.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>