A comprehensive, clinical nomogram tool, the Sunnybrook Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator – the first to use all known risk factors for prostate cancer – is available online to help men determine individual prostate cancer risk in consultation with their primary care physician. A nomogram is a statistical model to determine risk for disease based on risk factors using a table and chart format.
"This tool facilitates proactive dialogue between patients and their primary care physicians about prostate cancer risk, and management and treatment options," says Dr. Robert Nam, lead investigator and urologic oncologist, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook. “In addition to helping men avoid unnecessary biopsies this nomogram better detects prostate cancer at an earlier more curable stage and helps identify high risk patients who may need to make immediate dietary and lifestyle changes and need repeat biopsies.”
Sunnybrook researchers developed and validated the nomogram with 3,108 Canadian men including a subset of 408 volunteers with normal PSA (prostate specific antigen) levels who underwent a prostate biopsy. Of the 3,108 men, 42 per cent were diagnosed with prostate cancer. The nomogram was shown to perform better than conventional screening with PSA and DRE (digital rectal exam) alone, especially for patients with a known normal PSA level. Among the 408 men with a normal PSA, 24 per cent were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Further evaluation of the nomogram is underway with a multi-institutional, cross-Canada study group of another 5,000 men.
At age 70, Colin Graham’s PSA level was considered normal (less than or equal to 4.0 ng/ML). When the nomogram was used to assess all his risk factors, Dr. Nam recommended a prostate biopsy. The biopsy diagnosed aggressive prostate cancer and Colin underwent immediate and successful treatment through surgery. "I can’t express enough the relief I felt, knowing things were caught in time," says Graham, "and though this cancer was removed successfully, because I know my risk, I’m also aware I still need to be monitored."
"In Colin’s case, though his PSA was normal, a biopsy was justified based on the nomogram. On the other hand, in the case of an older patient with a high PSA level, if the nomogram predicts a low chance of having aggressive prostate cancer, then it would be reasonable to forego a biopsy," says Dr. Nam, assistant professor, department of surgery, University of Toronto.
Unlike current prostate cancer nomograms, this nomogram evaluates the risk of having prostate cancer in patients undergoing PSA screening. Known risk factors and tumour markers used are age, family, history of prostate cancer, ethnicity, urinary symptoms, PSA, free:total PSA ratio, and DRE (performed by the primary care physician). The Sunnybrook Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator is best used in collaboration with an individual’s primary care physician. If a patient determines he is at risk for aggressive prostate cancer, he can discuss management and treatment options in consultation with his primary care physician.
Natalie Chung-Sayers | EurekAlert!
Laser activated gold pyramids could deliver drugs, DNA into cells without harm
24.03.2017 | Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences
What does congenital Zika syndrome look like?
24.03.2017 | University of California - San Diego
Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...
Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...
In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...
20.03.2017 | Event News
14.03.2017 | Event News
07.03.2017 | Event News
24.03.2017 | Materials Sciences
24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy