Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Science sinks its teeth into 2500 year-old drug problem

16.01.2008
A new prosthetic tooth that releases a controlled dose of medication at regular intervals may achieve a goal that has eluded doctors for 2500 years: finding a way to help patients follow treatment.

“Keep a watch also on the faults of the patients, which often make them lie about the taking of things prescribed,” warned the father of medicine, Hippocrates, 2500 years ago.

In the 1980s, Dr C Everett Koop, probably the best-known US surgeon-general, famously summarised: “Drugs don’t work in patients who don’t take them.”

Not much has changed. Studies indicate that up to 50% do not take their medicine – some forget, others deny the need for it. Still others take the wrong medication at the wrong time, or the wrong dose.

At best, it invalidates patient care. At worst, it endangers their lives. It is an intractable problem that has existed as long as medical practice.

But perhaps not for much longer. IntelliDrug, a project funded by the European Commission, has developed a system that delivers controlled drug doses at appropriate intervals, keeping the dose delivered within the exact therapeutic window. Better yet, it is easy to maintain and requires no invasive procedure.

The answer to the 2500 year-old compliance conundrum? A prosthetic tooth, just two molars in size, containing a reservoir, valve and programmable timing controls. It can even be controlled by infrared, which allows doctors to adjust doses during the course of treatment. Ultimately, it could allow patients on pain medication to self-medicate, if necessary.

Better bioavailability
“The oral cavity is very accessible, so the device can be easily installed, refilled or have its batteries replaced,” says Dr Ben Z Beiski, IntelliDrug co-inventor and project manager. “But passing the drug through the buccal (cheek) tissue also means much greater bioavailability.”

Bioavailability refers to the body’s capacity to absorb a substance. “Our evolution has designed us so that the body rejects or impedes alien substances and large, unusual molecules,” says Dr Beiski. Molecules like those, typically, that make-up many modern drugs.

The upshot is that most drugs suffer from the first-pass effect. Between stomach acid, the gastrointestinal tract and, finally, the liver much – or even all – of a given dose is eliminated before it hits the bloodstream, where it does its work. “That’s why we need intravenous injections, to avoid the first-pass effect,” explains Dr Beiski.

But IntelliDrug delivers the dose to the buccal tissue, on the inside of the cheek, where the body absorbs drug doses much more easily. Doses can be smaller and take effect quicker.

Here is how it works. The micro-system contains a reservoir and release mechanism; a programmable circuit, micro-sensors, an infrared sensor, micro-actuators and batteries. All housed in a tiny package. The circuit acts like a miniscule computer, releasing the dose required at the right time.

Ultimately, the batteries should last three months. Refilling the reservoir would vary, depending on the type of drug and dosage, but could range from every week to every month. In a later system, the team hopes to use radio-frequency identification (RFID) and later GSM telephony to communicate with the system.

It is a demonstration of the power of multidisciplinary co-operation between several scientific disciplines like micro-systems, micro-fluidics, dentistry, and pharmacy.

But does it work?
So far, the device has been tested successfully on pigs, which have similar oral characteristics. In November 2007, IntelliDrug enters human trials with twelve volunteers following naltrexone therapy, a heroin addiction treatment. If trials go well, IntelliDrug could be on the market in three years.

If successful, it could revolutionise treatment. The device can be applied to any drug, and Dr Beiski sees applications for hypertensive patients to combat morning increases in blood pressure. Chronic pain, diabetics and Alzheimer’s patients could benefit, too, making it an attractive system for patients and doctors.

For pharmaceutical companies, it is even more attractive, offering the equivalent of patent protection for generic drugs using the system. The combination would be protected by IntelliDrug intellectual property.

But perhaps most important of all, it will mean, finally, an end to the 2500 year-old patient compliance conundrum.

Christian Nielsen | alfa
Further information:
http://cordis.europa.eu/ictresults/index.cfm/section/news/tpl/article/BrowsingType/Features/ID/89269

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Oxygen can wake up dormant bacteria for antibiotic attacks
08.12.2016 | Penn State

nachricht NTU scientists build new ultrasound device using 3-D printing technology
07.12.2016 | Nanyang Technological University

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Significantly more productivity in USP lasers

In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.

Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

Closing the carbon loop

08.12.2016 | Life Sciences

Applicability of dynamic facilitation theory to binary hard disk systems

08.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

Scientists track chemical and structural evolution of catalytic nanoparticles in 3-D

08.12.2016 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>