Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New Treatment Mechanisms for Schizophrenia

09.01.2008
The field of schizophrenia research has come alive with many exciting new potential approaches to treatment. From the introduction of chlorpromazine to the current day, all treatments approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration have had, at their core, a single treatment mechanism, the blockade of the dopamine D2 receptor.

The introduction of clozapine in the 1980’s suggested a potential that other brain targets might complement the blockade of dopamine D2 receptors to treat symptoms that failed to respond to the “typical” antipsychotics. We are now entering an age where new treatments are being rationally developed within the context of translational neuroscience, i.e., the steps whereby basic molecular neuroscience leads to fundamental new mechanisms that can be tested in animal and human laboratory-based research that, in turn, leads to tests of new medications in our clinics. The January 1st issue of Biological Psychiatry includes encouraging new research related to three new treatment approaches.

In the first study, Olszewski and colleagues tested a novel drug that inhibits the breakdown of the transmitter N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), which activates a receptor that reduces schizophrenia-like behaviors in some animal models. Their findings indicate that this drug is effective in an animal model of schizophrenia. Joseph H. Neale, Ph.D., lead author on this project, comments, “While treating patients with receptor agonists can be highly effective therapy, drugs that increase the action of the transmitter that activates the same receptor have traditionally been very effective with fewer side effects than chronic agonist treatment.” He adds, “These data support the conclusion that NAAG peptidase inhibitors represent a breakthrough in the discovery of a completely novel means of adjunct therapy for schizophrenia that is analogous to the use of SSRIs [selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors] for the treatment of depression."

In the second article, Hashimoto and colleagues demonstrated that repeated administration of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) decreased the density of ?7 nicotinic receptors (?7 nAChRs) in the mouse brain, and that the novel ?7 nAChR agonist SSR180711 could ameliorate PCP-induced cognitive deficits in mice. According to Kenji Hashimoto, Ph.D., head author for this study, the impetus for this study came from the fact that “accumulating evidence suggests that ?7 nicotinic receptors, a subtype of nicotinic receptors, are a most attractive target for novel therapeutic drugs of neuropsychiatric diseases including schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease. Behavioral abnormalities in animals after repeated administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) have been used an animal model of schizophrenia.” These findings suggest that ?7 nAChR agonists including SSR180711 could be potential therapeutic drugs for cognitive deficits in schizophrenic patients.

In the third investigation, Semenova and colleagues show that a recently discovered brain receptor for serotonin (5-HT7) might be of importance for understanding certain aspects of schizophrenia. Their study focused on sensory input processing, which is often impaired in schizophrenia, and finds that blockade of this particular serotonin receptor in mice alleviates this impairment. Peter B. Hedlund, M.D., Ph.D., senior author, notes: “Certain pharmaceuticals used to treat schizophrenia interact with this receptor. Our results indicate that especially so-called atypical antipsychotics may promiscuously exert some of their beneficial effects through the 5-HT7 receptor. Further exploration of this receptor as a treatment target may lead to more specific and better medications for disorders such as schizophrenia.”

John H. Krystal, M.D., Editor of Biological Psychiatry and affiliated with both Yale University School of Medicine and the VA Connecticut Healthcare System, comments, “It is very clear that very few tested medications actually become new treatments. However, the embedding of clinical research within the framework of translational neuroscience increases the likelihood that one or another of these mechanisms might someday emerge as a treatment for schizophrenia.” Dr. Krystal concludes, “Since we have so few mechanistically distinct approaches for the pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia, the possibility of the emergence of new treatment mechanisms is certainly a source of hope.”

Jayne Dawkins | alfa
Further information:
http://www.elsevier.com

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht TSRI researchers develop new method to 'fingerprint' HIV
29.03.2017 | Scripps Research Institute

nachricht Periodic ventilation keeps more pollen out than tilted-open windows
29.03.2017 | Technische Universität München

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A Challenging European Research Project to Develop New Tiny Microscopes

The Institute of Semiconductor Technology and the Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, both members of the Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology (LENA), at Technische Universität Braunschweig are partners in a new European research project entitled ChipScope, which aims to develop a completely new and extremely small optical microscope capable of observing the interior of living cells in real time. A consortium of 7 partners from 5 countries will tackle this issue with very ambitious objectives during a four-year research program.

To demonstrate the usefulness of this new scientific tool, at the end of the project the developed chip-sized microscope will be used to observe in real-time...

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Researchers shoot for success with simulations of laser pulse-material interactions

29.03.2017 | Materials Sciences

Igniting a solar flare in the corona with lower-atmosphere kindling

29.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

As sea level rises, much of Honolulu and Waikiki vulnerable to groundwater inundation

29.03.2017 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>