This problem is compounded by the fact that standard antiviral treatment for the disease can further reduce platelet numbers to dangerously low levels, effectively denying these patients the treatment they urgently need. Now, research published in the New England Journal of Medicine finds that a new drug, eltrombopag, appears to significantly boost platelet counts, opening the door to effective treatment.
"In this study, eltrombopag increased platelet counts in a dose-dependent manner, allowing more patients to complete the first 12 weeks of antiviral therapy—an important treatment goal," says Dr. Samuel Sigal, who led the study at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center in New York City—one of 22 study sites.
Dr. Sigal is assistant professor of medicine in the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology at Weill Cornell Medical College and assistant attending hepatologist in the Center for Liver Diseases and Transplantation at NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell.
The Phase 2 placebo-controlled study followed 74 patients with low platelet counts and cirrhosis of the liver due to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Seventy-four percent of those randomized to take the lowest dose (30 milligrams daily) saw their platelet counts go up significantly, while 79 percent and 95 percent of the participants saw increases with the higher doses (50 or 75 milligrams daily, respectively). And, 12 weeks of antiviral therapy were completed by 36, 53 and 65 percent of patients at the three dose levels—with increased numbers matched to the size of the dose. Underlining the trend, less than a quarter of patients receiving placebo completed their therapy.
The study identified side effects—including headaches, dry mouth, abdominal pain and nausea. None were serious enough to discontinue the therapy.
It's estimated that 4 million people in the U.S. and 170 million worldwide carry the hepatitis C virus. HCV is transmitted primarily by blood and blood products. The majority of infected individuals have either received blood transfusions prior to 1990 (when screening of the blood supply for HCV was implemented) or have used intravenous drugs. More rarely, it can also be transmitted through sexual intercourse and perinatally (mother to baby).
The virus causes inflammation and scarring in the liver, and while it is curable in about half of those who have it, it can lead to significant liver damage, liver cancer and death in others. HCV infection is a common cause of cirrhosis and the most common reason for a liver transplant.
With other eltrombopag findings, NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell's Dr. James Bussel led research, also reported in the New England Journal of Medicine, finding the platelet growth factor successfully increased platelet counts and decreased bleeding in patients with Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP), an autoimmune disease that dramatically reduces the number of platelets in their blood. (Dr. Bussel is an Advisory Board Member for GlaxoSmithKline; has received research grant support, lecture fees, and consulting fees from GlaxoSmithKline; and reports equity ownership in the company.)
The current study was sponsored by GlaxoSmithKline, which is developing eltrombopag. Eltrombopag (marketed as Promacta in the U.S. and Revolade in Europe) is an investigational oral, non-peptide platelet growth factor that induces the proliferation and differentiation of cells to produce platelets. While other drugs that restore normal platelet functions are infusions or injections, eltrombopag is a once-a-day pill.
The study's principal investigator was Dr. John McHutchison, of the Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, N.C. Additional participating institutions included Royal Free Hospital, London; Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond; Fundación de Investigación de Diego, San Juan; Hopital St. Joseph, Marseille; Henry Ford Hospital and Health System, Detroit; GlaxoSmithKline; and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston.
For more information, patients may call (866) NYP-NEWS.NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center
Staphylococcus aureus: A new mechanism involved in virulence and antibiotic resistance
23.03.2018 | Institut Pasteur
Scientists develop tiny tooth-mounted sensors that can track what you eat
22.03.2018 | Tufts University
Satellites in near-Earth orbit are at risk due to the steady increase in space debris. But their mission in the areas of telecommunications, navigation or weather forecasts is essential for society. Fraunhofer FHR therefore develops radar-based systems which allow the detection, tracking and cataloging of even the smallest particles of debris. Satellite operators who have access to our data are in a better position to plan evasive maneuvers and prevent destructive collisions. From April, 25-29 2018, Fraunhofer FHR and its partners will exhibit the complementary radar systems TIRA and GESTRA as well as the latest radar techniques for space observation across three stands at the ILA Berlin.
The "traffic situation" in space is very tense: the Earth is currently being orbited not only by countless satellites but also by a large volume of space...
An international team of researchers has discovered a new anti-cancer protein. The protein, called LHPP, prevents the uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells in the liver. The researchers led by Prof. Michael N. Hall from the Biozentrum, University of Basel, report in “Nature” that LHPP can also serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of liver cancer.
The incidence of liver cancer, also known as hepatocellular carcinoma, is steadily increasing. In the last twenty years, the number of cases has almost doubled...
In just a few weeks from now, the Chinese space station Tiangong-1 will re-enter the Earth's atmosphere where it will to a large extent burn up. It is possible that some debris will reach the Earth's surface. Tiangong-1 is orbiting the Earth uncontrolled at a speed of approx. 29,000 km/h.Currently the prognosis relating to the time of impact currently lies within a window of several days. The scientists at Fraunhofer FHR have already been monitoring Tiangong-1 for a number of weeks with their TIRA system, one of the most powerful space observation radars in the world, with a view to supporting the German Space Situational Awareness Center and the ESA with their re-entry forecasts.
Following the loss of radio contact with Tiangong-1 in 2016 and due to the low orbital height, it is now inevitable that the Chinese space station will...
Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, provider of research and development services for OLED lighting solutions, announces the founding of the “OLED Licht Forum” and presents latest OLED design and lighting solutions during light+building, from March 18th – 23rd, 2018 in Frankfurt a.M./Germany, at booth no. F91 in Hall 4.0.
They are united in their passion for OLED (organic light emitting diodes) lighting with all of its unique facets and application possibilities. Thus experts in...
A new scenario seeking to explain how Mars' putative oceans came and went over the last 4 billion years implies that the oceans formed several hundred million...
23.03.2018 | Event News
19.03.2018 | Event News
16.03.2018 | Event News
23.03.2018 | Materials Sciences
23.03.2018 | Agricultural and Forestry Science
23.03.2018 | Physics and Astronomy