Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Molecular Imaging Links Systemic Inflammation with Depression

03.04.2012
New data open door to potential diagnostic and treatment options
New research published in the April issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine reveals that systemic inflammation causes an increase in depressive symptoms and metabolic changes in the parts of the brain responsible for mood and motivation. With this finding, researchers can begin to test potential treatments for depression for patients that experience symptoms that are related to inflammation in the body or within the brain.

Multiple studies in rodents have shown that inflammation in the body has effects on the brain. This has also been shown in a few human studies—both through measurements of behavioral changes and brain imaging—when subjects were engaged in various computer tasks. The study “Glucose Metabolism in the Insula and Cingulate Is Affected by Systemic Inflammation in Humans,” however, for the first time measured brain activity when subjects were at rest.

“In the study we usedF-18 fluorodeoxyglucose(FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), which can accurately measure glucose metabolism in the brain, to determine which brain regions responded to systemic inflammation. Since the subjects were at rest, the changes we observed in the brain can only attributed to systemic inflammation,” noted Jonas Hannestad, MD, PhD, lead author of the article.

In the study, nine healthy individuals received a double-blind endotoxin (which elicits systemic inflammation and mild depressive symptoms such as fatigue and reduced social interest) and placebo on different days. After administration, F-18 FDG PET was used to measure the differences in the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose in the insula, cingulate and amygdala regions of the brain. Behavior changes were also primarily assessed on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS).

A statistical analysis of the results showed that endotoxin administration was associated with a higher normalized glucose metabolism (NMG) in the insula and lower NMG in the cingulate compared to the placebo; there was no significant difference in the NMG in the amygdala. Seven of nine subjects had an increase in NMG in the insula and a decrease in NMG in the cingulate, and all nine subjects had a decrease in NMG in the right anterior cingulate, suggesting that systemic inflammation induces fundamental physiologic changes in regional brain glucose metabolism. In addition, the MADRS increased for each subject after endotoxin administration, whereas no significant change was noted with the placebo.

Most researchers agree that depression is not a homogeneous disease, but rather that there are multiple mechanisms that can lead to similar symptoms. “If we can show that a subtype of depression is caused in part by inflammation,” said Hannestad, “we can test the ability of treatments that reduce inflammation in only patients in whom we believe inflammation plays a role.In the future, I expect that researchers in this field will be able to develop more precise PET measures that can be used to distinguish between, for instance, a person with ‘inflammatory depression’ and a person with another kind of depression. PET could then be used as diagnostic biomarker to separate subtypes of depression and as a therapeutic biomarker to detect the response to treatment.”

Nearly 17 percent of adults experience depression at some point over their lifetime, with 30.4 percent of cases classified as severe, according to the U.S. National Institute of Mental Health. Fifty-seven percent of adults with depression report receiving treatment in the past 12 months, although 37.8 percent receive minimally adequate treatment.

Authors of the article “Glucose Metabolism in the Insula and Cingulate Is Affected by Systemic Inflammation in Humans” include: Jonas Hannestad, Kalyani Subramanyam, Nicole DellaGioia and Brian Pittman, Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut; and Beata Planeta-Wilson, David Weinzimmer and Richard E. Carson, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

To schedule an interview with the researchers, please contact Susan Martonik at (703) 652-6773 or smartonik@snm.org.Current and past issues of The Journal of Nuclear Medicinecan be found online at http://jnm.snmjournals.org.

About SNM—Advancing Molecular Imaging and Therapy

SNM is an international scientific and medical organization dedicated to raising public awareness about what molecular imaging is and how it can help provide patients with the best health care possible. SNM members specialize in molecular imaging, a vital element of today’s medical practice that adds an additional dimension to diagnosis, changing the way common and devastating diseases are understood and treated.

SNM’s more than 17,000 members set the standard for molecular imaging and nuclear medicine practice by creating guidelines, sharing information through journals and meetings and leading advocacy on key issues that affect molecular imaging and therapy research and practice. For more information, visit www.snm.org.

Susan Martonik | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.snm.org

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Minimising risks of transplants
22.02.2018 | Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

nachricht FAU researchers demonstrate that an oxygen sensor in the body reduces inflammation
22.02.2018 | Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Developing reliable quantum computers

International research team makes important step on the path to solving certification problems

Quantum computers may one day solve algorithmic problems which even the biggest supercomputers today can’t manage. But how do you test a quantum computer to...

Im Focus: In best circles: First integrated circuit from self-assembled polymer

For the first time, a team of researchers at the Max-Planck Institute (MPI) for Polymer Research in Mainz, Germany, has succeeded in making an integrated circuit (IC) from just a monolayer of a semiconducting polymer via a bottom-up, self-assembly approach.

In the self-assembly process, the semiconducting polymer arranges itself into an ordered monolayer in a transistor. The transistors are binary switches used...

Im Focus: Demonstration of a single molecule piezoelectric effect

Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale

Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...

Im Focus: Hybrid optics bring color imaging using ultrathin metalenses into focus

For photographers and scientists, lenses are lifesavers. They reflect and refract light, making possible the imaging systems that drive discovery through the microscope and preserve history through cameras.

But today's glass-based lenses are bulky and resist miniaturization. Next-generation technologies, such as ultrathin cameras or tiny microscopes, require...

Im Focus: Stem cell divisions in the adult brain seen for the first time

Scientists from the University of Zurich have succeeded for the first time in tracking individual stem cells and their neuronal progeny over months within the intact adult brain. This study sheds light on how new neurons are produced throughout life.

The generation of new nerve cells was once thought to taper off at the end of embryonic development. However, recent research has shown that the adult brain...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

2nd International Conference on High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys (HTSMAs)

15.02.2018 | Event News

Aachen DC Grid Summit 2018

13.02.2018 | Event News

How Global Climate Policy Can Learn from the Energy Transition

12.02.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Stiffness matters

22.02.2018 | Life Sciences

Magnetic field traces gas and dust swirling around supermassive black hole

22.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

First evidence of surprising ocean warming around Galápagos corals

22.02.2018 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>