Two articles in the European Respiratory Journal's November issue are dedicated to this dangerous and versatile microorganism.
For many years, MRSA infections were associated with hospitalised, high-risk patients.Not only has the infection pattern recently shifted from hospital-acquired (nosocomial) to community-onset infections, but new strains have emerged, affecting young individuals, who don't have any risk factors. It seems that everything we know about these bacteria is becoming obsolete, to such an extent that a group of Italian researchers are now asking: "What is MRSA?"
This question (and the answer) is dealt with by Dr. Annalisa Pantosi from the Istituto Superiore di Sanita in Rome, Italy, and her colleagues in a current ERJ article.
Besides the hospital setting, every doctor associates MRSA with being a multiresistant bacterial pathogen - after all, even its name is based on its antibiotic sensitivity (or lack thereof). Able to destroy penicillin by producing an enzyme called penicillinase, MRSA earned its name because of a sophisticated genetic adaptation that enables it to bypass the effects of Methicillin, which blocks construction and maintenance of the bacterial cell wall. As a consequence, MRSA is resistant not only to methicillin but also to all beta-lactam antibiotics, including cephalosporins and carbapanems.Staphylococcal infections are a concern not only from the respiratory point of view - the organ system commonly involved is the skin, with furunculosis and impetigo being frequent manifestations. In addition, they can result in serious bloodstream infections (sepsis) and can infect prosthetic implants.
The "new generation" of MRSA strains commonly causes skin and soft- tissue infections. However, even if cases of community-acquired pneumonia due to MRSA are still rare, when respiratory infections occur, they are severe and carry a high mortality.
"The estimated incidence is 0.51-0.64 cases per 100.000 people" report Dr. Konstantinos Vardakas and his colleagues from the Alfa Institute of Biomedical Sciences in Athens, Greece.
In Europe, the prevalence of infections due to this community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) strain is lower than in the US. Nevertheless, physicians need to be aware of any infection that might be caused by a potentially multiple-drug resistant strain.Moreover, MRSA-pneumonia in the community setting is often preceded by influenza or an influenza-like illness, a phenomenon that may well become relevant in the upcoming influenza season and amid the ongoing pandemic of H1N1 influenza, writes Dr. Alexandra Nakou in an accompanying editorial.
Dr. Nakou adds: "Although community-acquired MRSA is sensitive to several antibiotics such as clindamycin, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and tetracyclines, the optimal treatment is not yet established. The current guidelines recommend the use of vancomycin or linezolid."
"MRSA should be part of the differential diagnosis of severe pneumonia during the influenza season, especially in patients with evidence of necrosis and in those with a history of MRSA infection".
Dr. Anka Stegmeier-Petroianu | idw
Researchers release the brakes on the immune system
18.10.2017 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn
Norovirus evades immune system by hiding out in rare gut cells
12.10.2017 | University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event
On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...
Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.
Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....
Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).
When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...
Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.
How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...
Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.
It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...
17.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
18.10.2017 | Materials Sciences
18.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
18.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy