Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

MRI shows disrupted connections in the brains of young people with ADHD

30.04.2014

A new study has found that children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have disrupted connections between different areas of the brain that are evident on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI). The results of this research are published online in the journal Radiology.

The findings point to the potential of rfMRI to help provide objectively accurate, early diagnosis of a disorder that affects approximately 5 percent of children and adolescents worldwide.

ADHD is a disorder characterized by age-inappropriate degrees of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Functional MRI studies, which measure brain activity when a person is focused on a particular task, have implicated the brain's frontostriatal circuit, a collection of neural pathways in the frontal lobe of the brain that helps control behavior. However, the specific brain physiology underlying ADHD remains poorly understood.

For the new study, researchers used rfMRI, a relatively new technique that assesses neural function when the brain is not focused on a specific task. The technique is useful for exploring the brain's functional organization independent of task performance.

The researchers compared rfMRI results in 33 boys with ADHD, ages 6 to 16, with those of 32 similarly aged, healthy controls. They correlated the MRI findings with results from tests of executive function, a term for the set of mental processes involved in planning, organizing, time management and regulating emotions, among other things. People with ADHD often have abnormal executive function.

The results showed that the patients with ADHD had altered structure and function located in areas of the brain like the orbitofrontal cortex, which is primarily involved in the cognitive processing of strategic planning, and the globus pallidus, which is involved in executive inhibitory control.

"Our study suggests that the structural and functional abnormalities in these brain regions might cause the inattention and hyperactivity of the patients with ADHD, and we are doing further analysis on their correlation with the clinical symptoms," said Qiyong Gong, M.D., Ph.D., a neuroradiologist from the Department of Radiology at West China Hospital of Sichuan University in Sichuan, China. "Our preliminary results show the association between imaging findings and symptoms."

The researchers also found abnormalities in the connections between resting-state brain networks associated with executive dysfunction. These abnormalities indicate more widespread brain alterations in ADHD than previously had been shown, Dr. Gong said.

Exploration of the association between brain activity and executive function might be useful in better characterizing patients with ADHD and in understanding the pathophysiology underlying the condition, according to Dr. Gong.

"Our results suggest the potential clinical utility of the rfMRI changes as a useful marker, which may help in diagnosis and in monitoring disease progression and, consequently, may inform timely clinical intervention in the future," he said.

Dr. Gong indicated that larger studies are needed to validate the results. The researchers also plan to study changes in connectivity over time in ADHD patients and explore the potential differences of functional connectivity between the clinical subtypes of ADHD, such as inattentiveness and hyperactivity.

The ADHD study is part of a larger project from Dr. Gong's group at Huaxi MR Research Center of the West China Hospital to explore MRI's diagnostic and prognostic potential in psychiatric disorders.

###

"Intrinsic Brain Abnormalities in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Resting-State Functional MR Imaging Study." Collaborating with Dr. Gong were Fei Li, Ph.D., Ning He, M.D., Yuanyuan Li, M.D., Lizhou Chen, M.D., Xiaoqi Huang, Ph.D., Su Lui, Ph.D., Lanting Guo, M.D., and Graham J. Kemp, M.A., D.M.

Radiology is edited by Herbert Y. Kressel, M.D., Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass., and owned and published by the Radiological Society of North America, Inc.

RSNA is an association of more than 53,000 radiologists, radiation oncologists, medical physicists and related scientists promoting excellence in patient care and health care delivery through education, research and technologic innovation. The Society is based in Oak Brook, Ill.

For patient-friendly information on MRI, visit RadiologyInfo.org.

Linda Brooks | Eurek Alert!

More articles from Medical Engineering:

nachricht Vanderbilt Team First to Blend High-End Imaging Techniques
17.03.2015 | Vanderbilt University Medical Center

nachricht Developing radically new technologies for X-ray systems
04.02.2015 | Siemens AG

All articles from Medical Engineering >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Experiment Provides the Best Look Yet at 'Warm Dense Matter' at Cores of Giant Planets

In an experiment at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, scientists precisely measured the temperature and structure of aluminum as...

Im Focus: Energy-autonomous and wireless monitoring protects marine gearboxes

The IPH presents a solution at HANNOVER MESSE 2015 to make ship traffic more reliable while decreasing the maintenance costs at the same time. In cooperation with project partners, the research institute from Hannover, Germany, has developed a sensor system which continuously monitors the condition of the marine gearbox, thus preventing breakdowns. Special feature: the monitoring system works wirelessly and energy-autonomously. The required electrical power is generated where it is needed – directly at the sensor.

As well as cars need to be certified regularly (in Germany by the TÜV – Technical Inspection Association), ships need to be inspected – if the powertrain stops...

Im Focus: 3-D satellite, GPS earthquake maps isolate impacts in real time

Method produced by UI researcher could improve reaction time to deadly, expensive quakes

When an earthquake hits, the faster first responders can get to an impacted area, the more likely infrastructure--and lives--can be saved.

Im Focus: Atlantic Ocean overturning found to slow down already today

The Atlantic overturning is one of Earth’s most important heat transport systems, pumping warm water northwards and cold water southwards. Also known as the Gulf Stream system, it is responsible for the mild climate in northwestern Europe. 

Scientists now found evidence for a slowdown of the overturning – multiple lines of observation suggest that in recent decades, the current system has been...

Im Focus: Robot inspects concrete garage floors and bridge roadways for damage

Because they are regularly subjected to heavy vehicle traffic, emissions, moisture and salt, above- and underground parking garages, as well as bridges, frequently experience large areas of corrosion. Most inspection systems to date have only been capable of inspecting smaller surface areas.

From April 13 to April 17 at the Hannover Messe (hall 2, exhibit booth C16), engineers from the Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing IZFP will be...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

World Conference On Regenerative Medicine 2015: Registration And Abstract Submission Now Open

25.03.2015 | Event News

University presidents from all over the world meet in Hamburg

19.03.2015 | Event News

10. CeBiTec Symposium zum Big Data-Problem

17.03.2015 | Event News

 
Latest News

Novel coatings combine protection with colour effects

27.03.2015 | Trade Fair News

A first glimpse inside a macroscopic quantum state

27.03.2015 | Physics and Astronomy

Researchers master gene editing technique in mosquito that transmits deadly diseases

27.03.2015 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>