Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Unraveling the Chinese cabbage genome

23.01.2012
The draft genome of the Chinese cabbage could underpin genetic improvement of brassica vegetable and oil crops

Clues into the evolutionary diversification of brassicas have emerged from the draft Chinese cabbage genome sequence1. Brassica crops include many agriculturally important vegetables, such as Chinese cabbage, pak choi, turnip, broccoli, cabbage and cauliflower, as well as various oilseed crops.

The sequencing focused on Chinese cabbage, Brassica rapa subspecies pekinensis, and was undertaken by the international Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project Consortium. The work was underpinned by the previously published genome sequence of the premier model of flowering plants, Arabidopsis thaliana. This species is related to B. rapa, with which it shared a common ancestor.

“Brassicas come in many shapes and sizes, and even individual species show considerable morphological variation. Genome information helps us understand the genetic basis of this diversity,” explains consortium member Hiroshi Abe of Japan’s RIKEN BioResource Center, one of the three biggest Arabidopsis stock centers in the world. “We developed genomic resources for Brassica rapa and contributed to the gene annotation in this project.”

New plant species generally arise through hybridization, involving whole genome duplications, followed by rapid DNA sequence divergence under natural selection, chromosomal rearrangements and extensive gene loss. Indeed, plant biologists have observed whole-genome duplication in all plant genomes sequenced to date, including that of A. thaliana. In addition, previous physical mapping studies revealed a whole genome triplication event in the Brassica lineage, after its divergence from the Arabidopsis lineage at least 13–17 million years ago.

The genome sequence assembled by the Consortium covers more than 98% of the DNA encoding genes. By analyzing the sequence in detail, the researchers were able to investigate the evolutionary and functional consequences of the whole genome triplication event.
The researchers identified 41,174 protein-encoding genes belonging to 16,917 separate gene families. By comparing the sequences of Brassica genes to those of A. thaliana, they were able to relate gene structures in these two plants. They found that the extent of gene loss among triplicated genome segments varies, with one of the three copies consistently retaining a disproportionately large fraction of ancestral genes. Based on their finding, the researchers believe that variation in the number of members of gene families present in the genome probably contributes to the remarkable morphological plasticity of Brassica species.

“We hope that our findings will contribute to the breeding of improved Brassica oil and vegetable crops,” says Abe. “The genomic resources for Brassica rapa developed at the RIKEN BioResource Center will soon be made available to the wider research community.”

The corresponding author for this highlight is based at the Experimental Plant Division, RIKEN BioResource Center

gro-pr | Research asia research news
Further information:
http://www.riken.jp
http://www.researchsea.com

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Multi-institutional collaboration uncovers how molecular machines assemble
02.12.2016 | Salk Institute

nachricht Fertilized egg cells trigger and monitor loss of sperm’s epigenetic memory
02.12.2016 | IMBA - Institut für Molekulare Biotechnologie der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften GmbH

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

Im Focus: Molecules change shape when wet

Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water

In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...

Im Focus: Fraunhofer ISE Develops Highly Compact, High Frequency DC/DC Converter for Aviation

The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.

Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

UTSA study describes new minimally invasive device to treat cancer and other illnesses

02.12.2016 | Medical Engineering

Plasma-zapping process could yield trans fat-free soybean oil product

02.12.2016 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

What do Netflix, Google and planetary systems have in common?

02.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>