Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

UC San Diego biologists discover genes that repair nerves after injury

22.09.2011
Biologists at the University of California, San Diego have identified more than 70 genes that play a role in regenerating nerves after injury, providing biomedical researchers with a valuable set of genetic leads for use in developing therapies to repair spinal cord injuries and other common kinds of nerve damage such as stroke.

In the September 22 issue of the journal Neuron, the scientists detail their discoveries after an exhaustive two-year investigation of 654 genes suspected to be involved in regulating the growth of axons—the thread-like extensions of nerve cells that transmit electrical impulses to other nerve cells. From their large-scale genetic screen, the researchers identified 70 genes that promote axon growth after injury and six more genes that repress the re-growth of axons.

"We don't know much about how axons re-grow after they're damaged," said Andrew Chisholm, a professor of biology at UC San Diego. "When you have an injury to your spinal cord or you have a stroke you cause a lot of damage to your axons. And in your brain or spinal cord, regeneration is very inefficient. That's why spinal cord injuries are basically untreatable."

Chisholm and UC San Diego biology professor and HHMI Investigator Yishi Jin headed the collaborative research team, which also included researchers from the University of Oregon.

While scientists in recent decades have gained a good understanding of how nerve cells, or neurons, develop their connections in the developing embryo, much less is known about how adult animals and humans repair—or fail to repair—those connections when axons are damaged.

"There are many processes not involved in early development that are involved in switching the neurons to this re-growth mode," said Chisholm. "In essence what we found are genes that people had not suspected previously to be part of this process."

Of particular interest to the UC San Diego biologists are the six genes that appear to repress the growth of axons.

"The discovery of these inhibitors is probably the most exciting finding," said Chisholm, because identifying and eliminating the inhibiting factors to the re-growth of axons could be just as essential as the biochemical pathways that promote axon re-growth in repairing spinal cord injuries and other kinds of nerve damage.

The scientists were also surprised to learn that some of the genes they found to be involved in the re-growth of axons were known to have other functions, such as regulating the release of neurotransmitters.

"This was in large part unexpected," said Chisholm. "These genes had not been implicated in the re-growth of axons before."

To find the 76 genes, the researchers conducted painstaking experiments on more than 10,000 tiny laboratory roundworms known as C. elegans. The first step involved developing genetic mutants of these transparent roundworms for each one of 654 genes that were suspected to play a role in the regulation of axon regrowth in worms, fruit flies and mice. They then labeled the roundworm neurons with green fluorescent protein and, with a precise surgical laser, damaged a specific axon.

"The goal was to study this process in its simplest form," said Chisholm. "Because the animals are essentially transparent, we can see the axons expressing this green fluorescent protein."

By examining the re-growth, or lack of growth, of the damaged axon 24 hours later, the scientists were then able to determine which of these 654 genes were actually important to axon re-growth.

Chisholm said that while the 76 genes identified are believed to have similar roles in mammals as well as roundworms, because their functions were "conserved" by the organisms through evolution, he and his research team are now collaborating with other investigators to conduct experiments on mice to verify this connection and determine which of these genes are the most critically important.

"Worms are clearly different from mammals," he added. "But there will be a core of conserved molecules doing the same job."

In addition to Chisholm and Jin, the UC San Diego biologists involved in the study were Lizhen Chen, Zhiping Wang, Anindya Ghosh-Roy, Thomas Hubert, Dong Yan, and Zilu Wu. Sean O'Rourke and Bruce Bowerman from the University of Oregon were also part of the team.

The research project was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

Kim McDonald | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.ucsd.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Discovery of a Key Regulatory Gene in Cardiac Valve Formation
24.05.2017 | Universität Basel

nachricht Carcinogenic soot particles from GDI engines
24.05.2017 | Empa - Eidgenössische Materialprüfungs- und Forschungsanstalt

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A quantum walk of photons

Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.

The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....

Im Focus: Turmoil in sluggish electrons’ existence

An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.

We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...

Im Focus: Wafer-thin Magnetic Materials Developed for Future Quantum Technologies

Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...

Im Focus: World's thinnest hologram paves path to new 3-D world

Nano-hologram paves way for integration of 3-D holography into everyday electronics

An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...

Im Focus: Using graphene to create quantum bits

In the race to produce a quantum computer, a number of projects are seeking a way to create quantum bits -- or qubits -- that are stable, meaning they are not much affected by changes in their environment. This normally needs highly nonlinear non-dissipative elements capable of functioning at very low temperatures.

In pursuit of this goal, researchers at EPFL's Laboratory of Photonics and Quantum Measurements LPQM (STI/SB), have investigated a nonlinear graphene-based...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Marine Conservation: IASS Contributes to UN Ocean Conference in New York on 5-9 June

24.05.2017 | Event News

AWK Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium 2017: Internet of Production for Agile Enterprises

23.05.2017 | Event News

Dortmund MST Conference presents Individualized Healthcare Solutions with micro and nanotechnology

22.05.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Physicists discover mechanism behind granular capillary effect

24.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Measured for the first time: Direction of light waves changed by quantum effect

24.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Marine Conservation: IASS Contributes to UN Ocean Conference in New York on 5-9 June

24.05.2017 | Event News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>