Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Timing is not only ticking

15.07.2014

Max Planck researchers discover that a Doppler effect influences segmentation

Many animals exhibit segmental patterns that manifest themselves during development. One classical example is the sequential and rhythmic formation the segmental precursors of the backbone, a process that has been linked to the ticking of an oscillator in the embryo – the “segmentation clock”.


Waves of oscillating gene expression are visible in pseudo-colour sweeping from the posterior to the anterior through the unsegmented tissue. The anterior end of this unsegmented tissue moves steadily into these on-coming waves, creating a Doppler effect that contributes to the rhythm of segmentation.

© Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics

Until now, this patterning process was thought to be determined simply by the time scale of genetic oscillations that periodically trigger new segment formation. However, Max Planck researchers suggest a more nuanced control over the timing of segmentation.

Their findings show that the rhythm of segmentation is influenced by a Doppler effect that arises from gene expression waves occurring in a shortening embryonic tissue. They paint a potentially revolutionary picture of the process of developmental segmentation, one controlled by not only the time scale of genetic oscillations, but also by changes in oscillation profile and tissue shortening.

What do you, I and many other animals have in common? Perhaps it isn’t the first thing you think of, but we, like them, have a distinctly segmented body axis. During our development, spatial and temporal cues are integrated to form a specific number of embryonic segments that later on give rise to corresponding ribs and vertebrae. The rhythm of this patterning process is crucial to determine the correct number and size of segments, but how is its timing actually controlled?

In vertebrates, the onset and arrest gene expression waves is thought to be controlled by a complex genetic network – the so-called “segmentation clock”. Each arrested waves triggers the formation of a new segment. The underling mechanism was thought to operate like a conventional clock that ticks with a precise period: one tick of the clock equals one new segment.

To examine this hypothesis a team of biologists and physicists guided by Andy Oates and Frank Jülicher from the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics together with colleagues from the Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems in Dresden developed a novel transgenic zebrafish line (named Looping) and a multidimensional time-lapse microscope that enabled them to visualise and quantify gene expression waves and segment formation at the same time.

To their surprise they found that the onset and arrest of waves happened with a different frequency, indicating that the timing of segmentation cannot be explained by a conventional clock alone. The team worked out that this puzzling difference in frequency was caused by a scenario that is similar to the classic Doppler effect.

Travelling tissue and oscillating genes

Imagine an ambulance driving down the street. Did you ever notice how the pitch of the siren changes as it drives past? This is the Doppler effect, and is caused by changes in the frequency of the sound waves as the source comes towards an observer (you) and then drives away. The same thing would happen if you rapidly approached and then passed a stationary sound source.

It turns out that sound waves are not entirely unlike the gene expression waves in zebrafish. These gene expression waves travel from the posterior towards the anterior of the animal (from the tip of the tail towards the head). As they do, the embryo develops, changing its shape, and the tissue in which the waves travel shortens. This leads to a relative motion of the anterior end of the tissue where the new segments form (the observer) towards the posterior (the source).

This motion of the observer into travelling gene expression waves leads to a Doppler effect in the developing zebrafish embryo. Moreover, this Doppler effect is modulated by a more subtle effect that is caused by a continuously changing wave profile. This Dynamic Wavelength effect and the Doppler effect have an opposing influence on the timing of segmentation, but the effect of the Doppler is stronger. Since this timing, as mentioned above, determines the number and size of the body segments, it affects the number and size of the developing ribs and vertebrae.

The team’s findings could potentially revolutionise our understanding of timing during development. The biological mechanism behind the change in the wave profile is still unclear, but it highlights the complex nature of development and the need to go beyond steady state and scaling descriptions of embryonic development.

Contact 

Florian Frisch

Public Information Officer

Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Dresden

Phone: +49351 210 2840

 

Original publication

 
Daniele Soroldoni, David J. Jörg, Luis G. Morelli, David L. Richmond, Johannes Schindelin, Frank Jülicher, Andrew C. Oates
A Doppler effect in embryonic pattern formation.
Science, 11 July 2014

Florian Frisch | Max-Planck-Institute
Further information:
http://www.mpg.de/8300471/Doppler-effect-segmentation-clock

Further reports about: Biology Doppler Genetics Molecular clock effect segmentation waves zebrafish

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Pathogenic bacteria hitchhiking to North and Baltic Seas?
22.07.2016 | Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung

nachricht Unconventional quasiparticles predicted in conventional crystals
22.07.2016 | Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Physik fester Stoffe

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Newly discovered material property may lead to high temp superconductivity

Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Ames Laboratory have discovered an unusual property of purple bronze that may point to new ways to achieve high temperature superconductivity.

While studying purple bronze, a molybdenum oxide, researchers discovered an unconventional charge density wave on its surface.

Im Focus: Mapping electromagnetic waveforms

Munich Physicists have developed a novel electron microscope that can visualize electromagnetic fields oscillating at frequencies of billions of cycles per second.

Temporally varying electromagnetic fields are the driving force behind the whole of electronics. Their polarities can change at mind-bogglingly fast rates, and...

Im Focus: Continental tug-of-war - until the rope snaps

Breakup of continents with two speed: Continents initially stretch very slowly along the future splitting zone, but then move apart very quickly before the onset of rupture. The final speed can be up to 20 times faster than in the first, slow extension phase.phases

Present-day continents were shaped hundreds of millions of years ago as the supercontinent Pangaea broke apart. Derived from Pangaea’s main fragments Gondwana...

Im Focus: A Peek into the “Birthing Room” of Ribosomes

Scaffolding and specialised workers help with the delivery – Heidelberg biochemists gain new insights into biogenesis

A type of scaffolding on which specialised workers ply their trade helps in the manufacturing process of the two subunits from which the ribosome – the protein...

Im Focus: New protocol enables analysis of metabolic products from fixed tissues

Scientists at the Helmholtz Zentrum München have developed a new mass spectrometry imaging method which, for the first time, makes it possible to analyze hundreds of metabolites in fixed tissue samples. Their findings, published in the journal Nature Protocols, explain the new access to metabolic information, which will offer previously unexploited potential for tissue-based research and molecular diagnostics.

In biomedical research, working with tissue samples is indispensable because it permits insights into the biological reality of patients, for example, in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

GROWING IN CITIES - Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Urban Gardening

15.07.2016 | Event News

SIGGRAPH2016 Computer Graphics Interactive Techniques, 24-28 July, Anaheim, California

15.07.2016 | Event News

Partner countries of FAIR accelerator meet in Darmstadt and approve developments

11.07.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

The Exception and its Rules

25.07.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

Using Ultrashort Pulsed Laser Radiation to Process Fibre-Reinforced Components

25.07.2016 | Materials Sciences

Added bacterial film makes new mortar resistant to water uptake

25.07.2016 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>