Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Sweet insight: Discovery could speed drug development

23.08.2011
The surface of cells and many biologically active molecules are studded with sugar structures that are not used to store energy, but rather are involved in communication, immunity and inflammation.

In a similar manner, sugars attached to drugs can enhance, change or neutralize their effects, says Jon Thorson, a professor of pharmaceutical sciences at the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Pharmacy.

Thorson, an expert in the attachment and function of these sugars, says that understanding and controlling them has major potential for improving drugs, but that researchers have been stymied because many novel sugars are difficult to create and manipulate. "The chemistry of these sugars is difficult, so we have been working on methods to make it more user friendly," he says.

Now, in a study published online in Nature Chemical Biology on Aug. 21, Thorson, graduate student Richard Gantt and postdoctoral fellow Pauline Peltier-Pain have described a simple process to separate the sugars from a carrier molecule, then attach them to a drug or other chemical. The process also causes a color change only among those molecules that have accepted the sugar. The change in color should support a screening system that would easily select out transformed molecules for further testing. "One can put 1,000 drug varieties on a plate and tell by color how many of them have received the added sugar," Thorson says.

Attached sugars play a key role in pharmacy, says Thorson. Not only can they change the solubility of a compound, but "there are transporters in the body that specifically recognize certain sugars, and pharmaceutical companies have taken advantage of this to direct molecules toward specific tissue or cell types. If we can build a toolbox that allows us to make these molecules on demand, we can ask, 'What will sugar A do when it's attached to drug B?'"

And although the new study was focused more on an improved technique rather than the alteration of drugs, Thorson adds that it does describe the production of some "really interesting sugar-appended drugs: anti-virals, antibiotics, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory drugs. Follow-up studies are currently under way to explore the potential of these analogs."

The new molecules included 11 variants of vancomycin, a powerful antibiotic, each distinguished by the nature and number of attached sugars.

The essence of the new process is its starting point: a molecule that changes the energy dynamics of the sugar-attachment reaction, Thorson says. "This is one of the first systematic studies of the equilibrium of the reaction, and it shows we can drive it forward or in reverse, depending on the molecule that we start with."

In a single test tube, the new technique is able to detach the sugar from its carrier and reattach it to the biological target molecule, Thorson says. "Sugars are involved a vast range of biology, but there are still many aspects that are not well understood about the impact of attaching and removing sugars, partly because of the difficulty of analyzing and accessing these species."

Making variants of potential and existing drugs is a standard practice for drug-makers, and a recently published study by Peltier-Pain and Thorson revealed that attaching a certain sugar to the anti-coagulant Warfarin destroys its anti-clotting ability. The transformed molecule, however, "suddenly becomes quite cytotoxic — it kills cells," he says. "We don't know the mechanism, but there is some interest in using it to fight cancer because it seems to act specifically on certain cells."

Sugars are also attached to proteins, cell surfaces and many other locations in biology, Thorson says. "By simplifying the attachment, we are improving the pharmacologist's toolbox. This study provides access to new reagents and offers a very convenient screening for new catalysts and/or new drugs, and for other things we haven't yet thought of. We believe this is going to open up a lot of doors."

Jon S. Thorson | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.wisc.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht The world's tiniest first responders
21.06.2018 | University of Southern California

nachricht A new toxin in Cholera bacteria discovered by scientists in Umeå
21.06.2018 | Schwedischer Forschungsrat - The Swedish Research Council

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Temperature-controlled fiber-optic light source with liquid core

In a recent publication in the renowned journal Optica, scientists of Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology (Leibniz IPHT) in Jena showed that they can accurately control the optical properties of liquid-core fiber lasers and therefore their spectral band width by temperature and pressure tuning.

Already last year, the researchers provided experimental proof of a new dynamic of hybrid solitons– temporally and spectrally stationary light waves resulting...

Im Focus: Overdosing on Calcium

Nano crystals impact stem cell fate during bone formation

Scientists from the University of Freiburg and the University of Basel identified a master regulator for bone regeneration. Prasad Shastri, Professor of...

Im Focus: AchemAsia 2019 will take place in Shanghai

Moving into its fourth decade, AchemAsia is setting out for new horizons: The International Expo and Innovation Forum for Sustainable Chemical Production will take place from 21-23 May 2019 in Shanghai, China. With an updated event profile, the eleventh edition focusses on topics that are especially relevant for the Chinese process industry, putting a strong emphasis on sustainability and innovation.

Founded in 1989 as a spin-off of ACHEMA to cater to the needs of China’s then developing industry, AchemAsia has since grown into a platform where the latest...

Im Focus: First real-time test of Li-Fi utilization for the industrial Internet of Things

The BMBF-funded OWICELLS project was successfully completed with a final presentation at the BMW plant in Munich. The presentation demonstrated a Li-Fi communication with a mobile robot, while the robot carried out usual production processes (welding, moving and testing parts) in a 5x5m² production cell. The robust, optical wireless transmission is based on spatial diversity; in other words, data is sent and received simultaneously by several LEDs and several photodiodes. The system can transmit data at more than 100 Mbit/s and five milliseconds latency.

Modern production technologies in the automobile industry must become more flexible in order to fulfil individual customer requirements.

Im Focus: Sharp images with flexible fibers

An international team of scientists has discovered a new way to transfer image information through multimodal fibers with almost no distortion - even if the fiber is bent. The results of the study, to which scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (Leibniz IPHT) contributed, were published on 6thJune in the highly-cited journal Physical Review Letters.

Endoscopes allow doctors to see into a patient’s body like through a keyhole. Typically, the images are transmitted via a bundle of several hundreds of optical...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Munich conference on asteroid detection, tracking and defense

13.06.2018 | Event News

2nd International Baltic Earth Conference in Denmark: “The Baltic Sea region in Transition”

08.06.2018 | Event News

ISEKI_Food 2018: Conference with Holistic View of Food Production

05.06.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

What are the effects of coral reef marine protected areas?

21.06.2018 | Life Sciences

The Janus head of the South Asian monsoon

21.06.2018 | Earth Sciences

The world's tiniest first responders

21.06.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>