Scientists used a portable nerve stimulator to extract venom from anesthetized cottonmouths, producing more consistent extraction results and greater amounts of venom, according to findings published in August in the journal Toxicon. The study of venoms is important for many reasons, scientists say.
"The human and animal health benefits include understanding the components of venom that cause injury and developing better antivenin," said Darryl Heard, B.V.M.S., Ph.D., an associate professor in the UF College of Veterinary Medicine's department of small animal clinical sciences. "In addition, the venom components have the potential to be used for diagnostic tests and the development of new medical compounds."
But in addition to showing the extraction method is safer, more effective and less stressful to both snake and handler than the traditional "milking" technique, Heard and Ryan McCleary, a Ph.D. candidate in biology in UF's College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, discovered the venom from these particular snakes differs from that of mainland snakes, likely because of their unique diet of dead fish dropped by seabirds.
Heard and McCleary collaborated to develop a safe, reliable and humane technique for collecting venom from cottonmouths as part of a larger study on a specific population of snakes that reside on Seahorse Key, an isolated island near Cedar Key on the Florida's Gulf Coast.
The venom collection study included data from 49 snakes on Seahorse Key.
"Snakes on this island are noted for their large size," said Heard, a zoological medicine veterinarian with additional expertise in anesthesia. He added that Harvey Lillywhite, Ph.D., a professor of biology at UF and McCleary's predoctoral adviser, has confirmed that cottonmouths on Seahorse Key eat primarily dead fish dropped by birds in a large seabird rookery.
Lillywhite also directs UF's Seahorse Key Marine Laboratory, located in the Cedar Keys National Wildlife Refuge. McCleary hopes to build on earlier studies about the snakes' ecology and to explore whether evolutionary changes may have affected the composition of the snakes' venom.
"My interest is in the evolutionary aspect," McCleary said. "If these snakes already have an abundant source of dead prey, why do they need venom?"
Preliminary findings show some differences in venom components, he added.
Traditionally, venom has been collected from venomous snakes by manually restraining the animal behind the head and having it bite a rubber membrane connected to a collecting chamber.
"This requires the capture of an awake snake, which increases the risk of human envenomation and is also stressful to the snake," Heard said, adding that manual collection of venom also does not guarantee that all of the venom is collected.
The nerve stimulator is used in human anesthesia to measure the effect of muscle relaxants.
"It delivers a series of electric stimuli, of very low voltage and amperage, and causes no pain or tissue injury," Heard said. "The electrodes are placed behind the eye, across the area of the venom gland. The nerve stimulator sends a current across the gland, causing reflex contraction and expulsion of the venom."
The technique allows collection from snakes that might not otherwise give up their venom, which is an essential in the process of creating antivenins for victims of snake bite, Heard said.
"The stimulator is battery-powered and relatively inexpensive," he said. "In addition, the anesthetic we used, known as propofol, can easily be transported."
Propofol, which has been prominent in news headlines recently as being linked to the death of singer Michael Jackson, is a short acting anesthetic administered by intravenous injection. The drug is commonly used to anesthetize animals in veterinary clinical practice, but it is not believed to have previously been used to anesthetize snakes for venom collection.
Sarah Carey | EurekAlert!
Nanoparticle Exposure Can Awaken Dormant Viruses in the Lungs
16.01.2017 | Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt
Cholera bacteria infect more effectively with a simple twist of shape
13.01.2017 | Princeton University
Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.
As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...
At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).
Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...
Many pathogens use certain sugar compounds from their host to help conceal themselves against the immune system. Scientists at the University of Bonn have now, in cooperation with researchers at the University of York in the United Kingdom, analyzed the dynamics of a bacterial molecule that is involved in this process. They demonstrate that the protein grabs onto the sugar molecule with a Pac Man-like chewing motion and holds it until it can be used. Their results could help design therapeutics that could make the protein poorer at grabbing and holding and hence compromise the pathogen in the host. The study has now been published in “Biophysical Journal”.
The cells of the mouth, nose and intestinal mucosa produce large quantities of a chemical called sialic acid. Many bacteria possess a special transport system...
UMD, NOAA collaboration demonstrates suitability of in-orbit datasets for weather satellite calibration
"Traffic and weather, together on the hour!" blasts your local radio station, while your smartphone knows the weather halfway across the world. A network of...
Fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) are frequently used in the aeronautic and automobile industry. However, the repair of workpieces made of these composite materials is often less profitable than exchanging the part. In order to increase the lifetime of FRP parts and to make them more eco-efficient, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) and the Apodius GmbH want to combine a new measuring device for fiber layer orientation with an innovative laser-based repair process.
Defects in FRP pieces may be production or operation-related. Whether or not repair is cost-effective depends on the geometry of the defective area, the tools...
10.01.2017 | Event News
09.01.2017 | Event News
05.01.2017 | Event News
16.01.2017 | Trade Fair News
16.01.2017 | Automotive Engineering
16.01.2017 | Life Sciences