Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Small molecule with high impact

03.03.2010
Researchers from HZI vaccine department examine new adjuvant to improve vaccinations

The adjuvants present in vaccines have a bad reputation. For most people, they are only unnecessary compounds within a medicinal product. This is a misunderstanding since adjuvants have a critical impact on the success of a vaccination. In the best case scenario, one single vaccination shot would be now sufficient for conferring life-long protection.

Vaccines are one of the most powerful tools against infectious diseases. They protect against an infection by preventing the infection to arise. In a typical vaccine, attenuated or killed pathogens or just some of their sub-cellular components are injected into the body. The immune system responds to those foreign components, producing antibodies and/or killer cells, which are able to fight the pathogen, as well as memory cells. The latter recognize the true pathogen after host infection, thereby promoting a specific and rapid response able to prevent the establishment of a disease.

However, the immune system often reacts only weakly to the attenuated pathogens or their fragments present in a vaccine. Thus, partial or short-life protection is usually stimulated. The adjuvants by themselves do not trigger an immune reaction, but given as components of a vaccine, they modulate and enhance the immune responses elicited, thereby providing a stronger, early and long-lasting protection. While searching for new adjuvants, the vaccine researchers at the HZI have now found the molecule "c-di-IMP".

"This molecule leads to a strong immune response and it is significantly more effective than known adjuvants," says Rimma Libanova, who is examining the molecule in her PhD thesis. To investigate how it works, she vaccinated mice with a harmless protein, which acts as a foreign structure for the immune system of a mouse. Like during a vaccination against a virus or bacterium, an immune response starts against the protein – without the danger of a real infection. One group of mice received the vaccine with the enhancer molecule, the other without the additive. After 42 days, she analyzed the immune reaction of the mice to the foreign protein. "We found a strong immune reaction in mice that received the optimized vaccine. Furthermore, we measured the stimulation of important effector mechanisms, which are key for the success of a vaccination," says Thomas Ebensen, who is working with Rimma Libanova on the new enhancer. Until now, the researchers were only able to show the effect in mice – but they think one step further: "With this new adjuvant, we want to improve already existing vaccines, such as those against influenza or hepatitis. Maybe it also helps to create new vaccines using component that in the past did not promote efficient immune responses using known adjuvants."

"The molecule might also help us to develop new vaccination strategies," says Professor Carlos A. Guzmán, head of the "Vaccinology and Applied Microbiology" Department at the HZI. His department is working on an alternative to the "shot": the snuff vaccination. Here, the vaccine is taken as a nasal spray to work where most pathogens enter the body: at the mucosae. Guzmán highlights, "c-di-IMP enhances also local mucosal immune responses, representing a strong candidate for the implementation of such type of vaccines. This is very important because mucosal vaccines can prevent not only diseases, but also to block infections before they even take place, thereby protecting also non vaccinated contacts against disease."

Original article: Libanova R, Ebensen T, Schulze K, Bruhn D, Norder M, Yevsa T, Morr M, Guzman CA. The member of the cyclic di-nucleotide family bis-(3', 5')-cyclic dimeric inosine monophosphate exerts potent activity as mucosal adjuvant. Vaccine, Volume 28, Issue 10, 2 March 2010, Pages 2249-2258, ISSN 0264-410X, DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.12.045.

Dr. Bastian Dornbach | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.helmholtz-hzi.de

Further reports about: HZI Small Molecule immune reaction immune response immune system

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Nanoparticle Exposure Can Awaken Dormant Viruses in the Lungs
16.01.2017 | Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt

nachricht Cholera bacteria infect more effectively with a simple twist of shape
13.01.2017 | Princeton University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

Im Focus: How to inflate a hardened concrete shell with a weight of 80 t

At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).

Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...

Im Focus: Bacterial Pac Man molecule snaps at sugar

Many pathogens use certain sugar compounds from their host to help conceal themselves against the immune system. Scientists at the University of Bonn have now, in cooperation with researchers at the University of York in the United Kingdom, analyzed the dynamics of a bacterial molecule that is involved in this process. They demonstrate that the protein grabs onto the sugar molecule with a Pac Man-like chewing motion and holds it until it can be used. Their results could help design therapeutics that could make the protein poorer at grabbing and holding and hence compromise the pathogen in the host. The study has now been published in “Biophysical Journal”.

The cells of the mouth, nose and intestinal mucosa produce large quantities of a chemical called sialic acid. Many bacteria possess a special transport system...

Im Focus: Newly proposed reference datasets improve weather satellite data quality

UMD, NOAA collaboration demonstrates suitability of in-orbit datasets for weather satellite calibration

"Traffic and weather, together on the hour!" blasts your local radio station, while your smartphone knows the weather halfway across the world. A network of...

Im Focus: Repairing defects in fiber-reinforced plastics more efficiently

Fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) are frequently used in the aeronautic and automobile industry. However, the repair of workpieces made of these composite materials is often less profitable than exchanging the part. In order to increase the lifetime of FRP parts and to make them more eco-efficient, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) and the Apodius GmbH want to combine a new measuring device for fiber layer orientation with an innovative laser-based repair process.

Defects in FRP pieces may be production or operation-related. Whether or not repair is cost-effective depends on the geometry of the defective area, the tools...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

Nothing will happen without batteries making it happen!

05.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Multiregional brain on a chip

16.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

New technology enables 5-D imaging in live animals, humans

16.01.2017 | Information Technology

Researchers develop environmentally friendly soy air filter

16.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>