Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Small genetic variant can predict response to hepatitis C treatment

14.06.2010
May spare side effects to those in whom treatment would be ineffective

A small genetic change can predict how people infected with hepatitis C react to treatment, paving the way to personalised therapy for this difficult to treat disease, the annual conference of the European Society of Human Genetics will hear today (Sunday 13 June). Dr. Zoltan Kutalik, from the Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne, Switzerland, will tell delegates that individuals with this change, in a gene encoding for the antiviral cytokine (cell-signalling molecule) interferon lamda, reacts less well to treatment. This knowledge could spare them the unpleasant side effects of a therapy which most likely would have little benefit for them, he says.

Hepatitis C is a serious liver disease, normally contracted through drug use, blood transfusion or sexual transmission. About 10% of all patients have no identifiable source of infection. The virus produces chronic infection in around 80% of infected individuals, and half of these do not respond to existing therapies. Current treatment involves a combination of an interferon and the antiviral medication ribavirin. Side effects are common and can be serious to the extent that some people are unable to continue to work.

The fact that people respond so differently to the same treatment is usually because a genetic variation in the non-responders is, via complex genetic pathways, inhibiting the effects of therapy. "The Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV) has a large cohort of Hepatitis C patients seen at the hospital over many years", said Dr. Kutalik, "so this provided the opportunity for us to do a genome-wide association study on 1362 of them to see if we could track down any differences relating to patients' failure to respond to therapy."

Genome-wide association studies look at variations across the entire genome of individuals to look for genetic associations with well-defined traits, including why some people get a particular disease and condition as well as why they might react or not to therapy for it. In this case, approximately half of the patients studied had responded successfully to therapy, giving the scientists the opportunity to compare their genomes with those from patients who had not responded.

"Using a gene-chip technology, a team of clinicians, geneticists and statisticians looked at over one million polymorphic nucleotides, the letters A, C, G and T of the DNA sequence", said Dr. Kutalik. "Our analysis revealed that a single nucleotide polymorphism, or SNP, was present in a gene called IL28B, which encodes for interferon lambda. This was significantly associated with both natural and drug-induced clearance of the hepatitis C virus from the body. This polymorphism may exert its influence by modulating the expression level of the interferon lambda gene."

Individuals who carry the protective allele (letter) at this genetic locus are twice as likely to clear the virus and, even if they do not, they will respond to therapy in a sustained manner; the scientists say. "Individuals infected with the less malignant subtype of the virus and carrying no risk allele were five times more likely to respond than those who were infected with other subtypes and who carried at least one copy of the risk allele. Based on our results we can speculate that the interferon lamda gene is key to increasing the success of therapy, as such therapy could, in theory, compensate for the effect of the polymorphism. Phase 1B trials of interferon lamda therapy in patients with hepatitis C have already shown promising results", Dr. Kutalik said.

The scientists intend to follow up their work by focusing on a better understanding of the more complex characteristics of hepatitis C, including finding the genetic variants that are responsible for hepatitis C liver fibrosis. "This disease affects up to 300 million people worldwide. It is insidious, and often individuals are not aware that they are infected until serious liver damage has taken place", said Dr. Kutalik. "Finding better treatments is vital. As well as sparing those who would not react well to current treatment from side effects, we hope that our work may provide pointers to the development of effective therapies for the future."

Mary Rice | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.eshg.org

Further reports about: Genetics Hepatitis C Human Genetics Kutalik Lausanne Small Molecule genetic variant

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht New insights into the information processing of motor neurons
22.02.2017 | Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience

nachricht Wintering ducks connect isolated wetlands by dispersing plant seeds
22.02.2017 | Utrecht University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Positrons as a new tool for lithium ion battery research: Holes in the electrode

22.02.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

New insights into the information processing of motor neurons

22.02.2017 | Life Sciences

Healthy Hiking in Smart Socks

22.02.2017 | Innovative Products

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>