Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Small non-coding RNAs could be warning signs of cancer

17.02.2014
Small non-coding RNAs can be used to predict if individuals have breast cancer conclude researchers who contribute to The Cancer Genome Atlas project.

The results, which are published in EMBO reports, indicate that differences in the levels of specific types of non-coding RNAs can be used to distinguish between cancerous and non-cancerous tissues. These RNAs can also be used to classify cancer patients into subgroups of individuals that have different survival outcomes.

Small non-coding RNAs are RNA molecules that do not give rise to proteins but which may have other important functions in the cell. “For many years, small non-coding RNAs near transcriptional start sites have been regarded as ‘transcriptional noise’ due to their apparent chaotic distribution and an inability to correlate these molecules with known functions or disease,” explains Steven Jones, one of the lead authors of the study, a professor at Simon Fraser University and the University of British Columbia, and a distinguished scientist at the BC Cancer Agency.

“By using a computational approach to analyze small RNA sequence information that we generated as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas project, we have been able to filter through this noise to find clinically useful information,” adds Jones. “The data from our experiments show that genome-wide changes in the expression levels of small non-coding RNAs in the first exons of protein-coding genes are associated with breast cancer.”

The scientists were able to distinguish between the many different small non-coding RNAs that are found near the transcriptional start sites of genes in healthy individuals and patients with breast cancer (in this case, breast invasive carcinoma). They mapped these RNA molecules to specific locations on the DNA sequence and looked for correlations between the non-coding RNAs that were strongly expressed and the disease status of the patients from whom the tissue samples were isolated. The researchers then tested if the expression of the small RNAs in genomic locations that they were able to identify could be used to predict the presence of disease in another group of tissue samples obtained from patients known to have breast cancer. The test efficiently predicted the correct disease status for the samples in the new study group.

“The potential to predict cancer status is restricted to only a subset of the many small non-coding RNAs found near transcription start sites of the genes. What’s more, these RNA locations are highly enriched with CpG islands,” says Athanasios Zovoilis, the first author of the study. CpG islands are genomic regions that contain a high frequency of cytosine and guanine. The presence of these RNAs in these islands may implicate their involvement with DNA methylation processes and the onset of disease but additional experiments are needed to explore and prove this link.

“This is the first time that small non-coding RNAs near the transcription start site of genes have been associated with disease,” says Jones. “Further work is required but based on our data we believe there is considerable diagnostic potential for these small non-coding RNAs as a predictive tool for cancer. In addition, they may help us understand better the mechanisms underlying oncogenesis at the epigenetic level and lead to potential new drugs employing small non-coding RNAs.” The researchers also note that this class of small non-coding RNAs may be useful in predicting the existence of other types of cancer or disease.

The generation of data by The Cancer Genome Atlas project, which now provides access to large amounts of sequencing information for diseased and normal tissues, made the work possible. The Cancer Genome Atlas is now one of the largest resources for small non-coding RNAs in existence.

The expression level of small non-coding RNAs derived from the first exon of protein coding genes is predictive of cancer status

Athanasios Zovoilis, Andrew J Mungall, Richard Moore, Richard Varhol,
Andy Chu, Tina Wong, Marco Marra, Steven JM Jones
Read the paper:
doi: 10.1002/embr.201337950
The paper will be available online from 14:00 Central European Time on 17 February. Alternatively send an e-mail to barry.whyte@embo.org

Further information on EMBO reports is available at embor.embopress.org

Media Contacts
Barry Whyte
Head | Public Relations and Communications
barry.whyte@embo.org
Nonia Pariente
Senior Editor, EMBO reports
Tel: +49 6221 8891 305
pariente@embo.org
About EMBO
EMBO is an organization of more than 1500 leading researchers that promotes excellence in the life sciences. The major goals of the organization are to support talented researchers at all stages of their careers, stimulate the exchange of scientific information, and help build a European research environment where scientists can achieve their best work.

EMBO helps young scientists to advance their research, promote their international reputations and ensure their mobility. Courses, workshops, conferences and scientific journals disseminate the latest research and offer training in techniques to maintain high standards of excellence in research practice. EMBO helps to shape science and research policy by seeking input and feedback from our community and by following closely the trends in science in Europe.

Yvonne Kaul | EMBO Communications
Further information:
http://www.embo.org

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht A Map of the Cell’s Power Station
18.08.2017 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau

nachricht On the way to developing a new active ingredient against chronic infections
21.08.2017 | Deutsches Zentrum für Infektionsforschung

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Nagoya physicists resolve long-standing mystery of structure-less transition

21.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

Chronic stress induces fatal organ dysfunctions via a new neural circuit

21.08.2017 | Health and Medicine

Scientists from the MSU studied new liquid-crystalline photochrom

21.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>