Asexual reproduction, however, is considerably more successful for mildew, as plant biologists from the University of Zurich and the Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research in Cologne demonstrate. Nonetheless, the fungus still allows itself a sexual reproduction cycle.
Powdery mildew on young wheat plants.
Powdery mildew is one of the most dreaded plant diseases: The parasitic fungus afflicts crops such as wheat and barley and is responsible for large harvest shortfalls every year. Beat Keller and Thomas Wicker, both plant biologists from the University of Zurich, and their team have been analyzing the genetic material of wheat mildew varieties from Switzerland, England and Israel while the team headed by Paul Schulze-Lefert at the Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research in Cologne studies the genetic material of barley mildew.
The results recently published in Nature Genetics and PNAS respectively unveil a long shared history of co-evolution between the host and the pest and the unexpected success of asexually produced mildew offspring. Moreover, the data provides fresh insights into the crop history of wheat and barley and their interaction with the mildew pathogen.
This baffling fact has more deep-rooted causes: In order to infect the host plant, the mildew fungus needs to be able to successfully disable the plant’s defense mechanisms – the parasite has to be perfectly adapted to its host. “In a parasite-host situation, new combinations of genetic material are a disadvantage for the parasite as the adaptation to the host and its defense mechanisms deteriorates as a result.” Genetically identical offspring of successful mildew fungi that have already been able to infect the host plant, however, have the ideal genetic prerequisites to be able to attack a host themselves. According to Schulze-Lefert, wheat and barley mildew offspring from asexual reproduction are normally more successful than their sexually reproduced counterparts. Asexual reproduction as a success model seems to be characteristic of many parasitic fungi, including those that afflict humans, such as athlete’s foot.Sex still worthwhile
Evidently, a sexual exchange and mixtures of the genetic material of different mildew varieties have occurred several times in the course of the millennia, giving rise to new mildew varieties that were able to attack new sorts of wheat. The scientists suspect that the grain trade in the ancient world was partly responsible for the emergence of new mildew varieties.Literature:
Stéphane Hacquard et al. Mosaic genome structure of the barley powdery mildew pathogen and conservation of transcriptional programs in divergent hosts. PNAS. May 21, 2013. doi/10.1073/pnas130607110Contact:
Nathalie Huber | Universität Zürich
Transport of molecular motors into cilia
28.03.2017 | Aarhus University
Asian dust providing key nutrients for California's giant sequoias
28.03.2017 | University of California - Riverside
The Institute of Semiconductor Technology and the Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, both members of the Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology (LENA), at Technische Universität Braunschweig are partners in a new European research project entitled ChipScope, which aims to develop a completely new and extremely small optical microscope capable of observing the interior of living cells in real time. A consortium of 7 partners from 5 countries will tackle this issue with very ambitious objectives during a four-year research program.
To demonstrate the usefulness of this new scientific tool, at the end of the project the developed chip-sized microscope will be used to observe in real-time...
Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...
Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...
In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
20.03.2017 | Event News
14.03.2017 | Event News
07.03.2017 | Event News
28.03.2017 | Life Sciences
28.03.2017 | Information Technology
28.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy