Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New sequencing tools give up close look at yeast evolution

22.01.2014
Highlights in this week's Molecular Biology and Evolution

The baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been associated with human activities for thousands of years, being the primary biological agent in baking, brewing, winemaking and other fermentation processes.

It is also one of the most important model organisms in molecular biology and genetics research. For a long time, the history and evolution of this important yeast has been a completely mystery, but recent advances in genome sequencing technologies now allow it to be studied in great detail.

Using next-generation sequencing, corresponding author Gianni Liti et. al. provide a detailed characterization of the genetic variation present within the baker's yeast species. They sequenced the genomes of 42 strains of S. cerevisiae and its closest relative S. paradoxus, which is an entirely wild species that has not had any contact with humans.

A central finding of this study is that even though strains in S. paradoxus are separated by much greater genetic distances in terms of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the S. cerevisiae strain genomes harbor more variation in terms of absence and presence and copy number of genes.

It has previously been observed that trait variation is also much larger in S. cerevisiae than in its wild relative. These new results therefore raise the intriguing hypothesis that this variation in the content of the genome, rather than single-nucleotide differences, underlies the large phenotypic variation in S. cerevisiae.

The authors find that the subtelomeric regions of the genomes, located just before the telomeres at each chromosome end, are highly enriched for genome variation that is likely to contribute to differences in traits between strains. This includes loss-of-function mutations that likely disrupt the function of whole genes. As an example of functional variation they describe how differences in the copy number of a subtelomeric gene cluster controls the ability of strains to grow under arsenic stress, and demonstrate that this variation is the product of convergent evolution in yeast lineages in different parts of the world.

"These genome sequences allowed us to expose surprising differences between the evolutionary histories of the common baker's yeast and its wild relative. Our results suggest that the very large diversity in traits observed between strains of baker's yeast might mostly be due to the presence or absence of entire genes rather than differences in single DNA letters."

The study provides intriguing insights into the recent history of this important organism and the relationship between genome variation and trait variation. Future research will further elucidate what role humans have played in shaping the evolution of baker's yeast, for example the extent to which the genomic variation is a consequence of yeast strains moving into novel habitats and niches opened up by human activities.

Joe Caspermeyer | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.asu.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Family tree for orchids explains their astonishing variability
04.09.2015 | University of Wisconsin-Madison

nachricht Gone with the wind: A new project focusses on atmospheric input of phosphorus into the Baltic Sea
04.09.2015 | Leibniz-Institut für Ostseeforschung Warnemünde

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Hubble survey unlocks clues to star birth in neighboring galaxy

In a survey of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope images of 2,753 young, blue star clusters in the neighboring Andromeda galaxy (M31), astronomers have found that M31 and our own galaxy have a similar percentage of newborn stars based on mass.

By nailing down what percentage of stars have a particular mass within a cluster, or the Initial Mass Function (IMF), scientists can better interpret the light...

Im Focus: Fraunhofer ISE Develops Highly Compact Inverter for Uninterruptible Power Supplies

Silicon Carbide Components Enable Efficiency of 98.7 percent

Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE have developed a highly compact and efficient inverter for use in uninterruptible power...

Im Focus: How wind sculpted Earth's largest dust deposit

China's Loess Plateau was formed by wind alternately depositing dust or removing dust over the last 2.6 million years, according to a new report from University of Arizona geoscientists. The study is the first to explain how the steep-fronted plateau formed.

China's Loess Plateau was formed by wind alternately depositing dust or removing dust over the last 2.6 million years, according to a new report from...

Im Focus: An engineered surface unsticks sticky water droplets

The leaves of the lotus flower, and other natural surfaces that repel water and dirt, have been the model for many types of engineered liquid-repelling surfaces. As slippery as these surfaces are, however, tiny water droplets still stick to them. Now, Penn State researchers have developed nano/micro-textured, highly slippery surfaces able to outperform these naturally inspired coatings, particularly when the water is a vapor or tiny droplets.

Enhancing the mobility of liquid droplets on rough surfaces could improve condensation heat transfer for power-plant heat exchangers, create more efficient...

Im Focus: Increasingly severe disturbances weaken world's temperate forests

Longer, more severe, and hotter droughts and a myriad of other threats, including diseases and more extensive and severe wildfires, are threatening to transform some of the world's temperate forests, a new study published in Science has found. Without informed management, some forests could convert to shrublands or grasslands within the coming decades.

"While we have been trying to manage for resilience of 20th century conditions, we realize now that we must prepare for transformations and attempt to ease...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Together - Work - Experience

03.09.2015 | Event News

Networking conference in Heidelberg for outstanding mathematicians and computer scientists

20.08.2015 | Event News

Scientists meet in Münster for the world’s largest Chitin und Chitosan Conference

20.08.2015 | Event News

 
Latest News

Ion implanted, co-annealed, screen-printed 21% efficient n-PERT solar cells with a bifaciality >97%

04.09.2015 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Casting of SiSiC: new perspectives for chemical and plant engineering

04.09.2015 | Machine Engineering

Extremely thin ceramic components made possible by extrusion

04.09.2015 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>