Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Secretions of the mind

28.02.2011
Insights into a specific secretion mechanism in the brain could lead to a better understanding of anxiety in unfamiliar or stressful environments

A molecule called calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CAPS2) promotes the secretion of a neurotrophic factor that is critical for the proper development and survival of networks of interneurons in the brain’s hippocampus, researchers in Japan have shown[1].

Teiichi Furuichi of the RIKEN Brain Science Institute in Wako, and his colleagues showed previously that CAPS2 is involved in secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) from cerebellar granule cells and neurons in the cerebral cortex, but its exact role in secretion was unclear.

Yo Shinoda, a researcher of the Furuichi's group used antibody staining to examine the distribution of CAPS2 in cultured hippocampal neurons of mice. He saw that most CAPS2 localized along the axons, but found some on secretory vesicles that contain and release BDNF.

To investigate the role of CAPS2 in BDNF secretion, the researchers visualized BDNF secretion in cells from mutant mice lacking the CAPS2 gene. They found that these cells secreted significantly less BDNF than normal cells, but the level returned to normal or became enhanced when they transfected the cells with CAPS2 (Fig. 1).

The researchers then examined hippocampal interneurons in the mutant mice and compared them with those in normal animals. These interneurons synthesize and secrete ã-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. The mutants had reduced numbers of these cells in hippocampus of the brain. Furthermore, analysis of inhibitory synapses under the electron microscope revealed that the mutants had fewer synaptic vesicles than the normal animals. The researchers also revealed that the vesicles were distributed over a smaller area within presynaptic boutons, the specialized area where loaded vesicles dock to release their contents.

Finally, the researchers used microelectrodes to examine the electrical activity of the cells from the mutants and discovered that there was a significant reduction in both the number and size of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents. Consequently, the mutant mice displayed anxiety-like behaviors that would be expected with a GABA signaling impairment.

The findings show that CAPS2 promotes BDNF secretion by affecting the kinetics of its release from dense-core vesicles, and that BDNF is essential for proper development and function of the networks of inhibitory interneurons in the hippocampus, the researchers conclude. “We are interested in the molecular mechanism underlying the enhanced BDNF secretion, and would like to analyze the kinetics of secretion using state-of-the art cell imaging technology,” Furuichi explains. “We also want to study relation of CAPS2-BDNF-GABA pathways in anxiety and depressive behavior.”

The corresponding author for this highlight is based at the Laboratory for Molecular Neurogenesis, RIKEN Brain Science Institute

Journal information

[1] Shinoda, Y., Sadakata, T. Nakao, K., Katoh-Semba, R., Kinameri, E., Furuya, A., Yanagawa, Y., Hirase, H. & Furuichi, T. Calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CAPS2) promotes BDNF secretion and is critical for the development of GABAergic interneuron network. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 108, 373–378 (2011)

gro-pr | Research asia research news
Further information:
http://www.rikenresearch.riken.jp/eng/research/6533
http://www.researchsea.com

Further reports about: BDNF Brain CAPS2 Furuichi RIKEN Science TV mutant mice neurotrophic factor

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht How brains surrender to sleep
23.06.2017 | IMP - Forschungsinstitut für Molekulare Pathologie GmbH

nachricht A new technique isolates neuronal activity during memory consolidation
22.06.2017 | Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can we see monkeys from space? Emerging technologies to map biodiversity

An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.

Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Quantum thermometer or optical refrigerator?

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

A 100-year-old physics problem has been solved at EPFL

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Equipping form with function

23.06.2017 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>