The team, funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and working at UCL (University College London), have shown for the first time that genes involved in chronic pain are regulated by molecules inside cells called small RNAs. This mechanism is so different from what has already been discovered about the biology underpinning pain that it could be the Achilles heel of chronic inflammatory pain, which is notoriously difficult to treat. The research appears in The Journal of Neuroscience.
Lead researcher Professor John Wood from UCL said "When a person experiences chronic pain as a result of some sort of inflammation - as in arthritis - their pain threshold goes down very dramatically. What they can normally do without pain, such as walking or putting on clothes, becomes very painful.
"Chronic inflammatory pain can be treated with pain-killing drugs - analgesics - but these usually have an impact on the whole body and may also dull our experience of acute pain, which is actually very important as it protects us from injury. Just imagine if you didn't get a sharp pain when you accidentally touch the oven - you wouldn't be compelled to take your hand away quickly and could end up with a serious burn.
"What we would really like to be able to do is return the pain thresholds to normal in a person who has chronic inflammatory pain, rather than just numbing the whole body. This would mean that they still get the protection of acute pain. Currently, aspirin-like drugs that can do this have a number of side effects but the present discovery might make it possible to invent a class of drugs that act in a completely novel way."
The researchers studied mice that lack an enzyme called Dicer in some of their nerve cells and found that they respond normally to acute pain but don't seem to be bothered by anything that would usually cause chronic inflammatory pain. This is because Dicer makes small RNAs, which they now know are required for regulation of genes involved in chronic inflammatory pain. Without Dicer the small RNAs aren't made and without the small RNAs many of these genes are expressed at low levels. So, for example, molecules such as sodium channels that make pain nerves responsive to inflammation are produced at low levels and therefore inflammatory pain is not detected by the mouse's body.
Professor Wood concluded "Knowing that small RNAs are so important in chronic inflammatory pain provides a new avenue for developing drugs for some of the most debilitating and life-long conditions out there. We have identified small RNAs, which are possible drug targets"
Professor Douglas Kell, BBSRC Chief Executive said "It is extremely important to be able to find out as much as possible about the fundamental processes of 'normal' biology, as a vehicle for understanding what may go wrong. Because these researchers have made efforts to unpick what is happening at a molecular level in our nerves, they have been able to lay the groundwork for future drug development in the important area of chronic pain. This is an excellent example of the basic research we have to do to help ensure that our increasing lifespan does not mean that the later years of our lives are spent in ill health and discomfort."Notes to editors
Zhao et al., "Small RNAs Control Sodium Channel Expression, Nociceptor Excitability, and Pain Thresholds", The Journal of Neuroscience, 2010, 30(32):10860-10871; doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1980-10.2010 at: http://bit.ly/c5BQKvAbout UCL
BBSRC provides institute strategic research grants to the following:The Babraham Institute
Nancy Mendoza | EurekAlert!
Symbiotic bacteria: from hitchhiker to beetle bodyguard
28.04.2017 | Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
Nose2Brain – Better Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis
28.04.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Grenzflächen- und Bioverfahrenstechnik IGB
More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.
Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...
Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.
"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...
The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...
The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...
Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
28.04.2017 | Event News
20.04.2017 | Event News
18.04.2017 | Event News
28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering
28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences
28.04.2017 | Life Sciences