Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Saving the Single Cysteine: New Antioxidant System Found

24.11.2009
We've all read studies about the health benefits of having a life partner. The same thing is true at the molecular level, where amino acids known as cysteines are much more vulnerable to damage when single than when paired up with other cysteines.

Now, researchers at the University of Michigan, along with colleagues in Belgium, have discovered a new antioxidant system that protects single cysteines. The research appears in the Nov. 20 issue of the journal Science.

Our body's proteins, which are made up of amino acids and perform essential roles, can be injured by reactive species known as oxidants. Over time, the injuries can lead to cancer, heart disease, Alzheimer's disease and other serious medical conditions. To guard against such harm, our cells have special proteins that can repair or reverse oxidative damage. But until now, no such repair system had been identified for single cysteines, which are particularly susceptible to the damage.

In the current research, U-M's Kate Carroll and colleagues used previously developed chemical probes to investigate and nail down the mechanism involved.

"Our results reveal that a protein called DsbG serves this precise function in the periplasmic compartment in bacteria, protecting single cysteines residues from hyperoxidation and inactivation," said Carroll, an assistant professor of chemistry and a research assistant professor in the Life Sciences Institute. The periplasmic compartment is a space between the inner and outer membranes of bacteria such as Escherichia coli, which were used in this study. Although human cells have no periplasmic compartment, they have an equivalent membrane network called the endoplasmic reticulum.

"Since proteins from the DsbG family are widespread and have been identified in the majority of genomes including humans, some of these related members may play similar roles in controlling cysteine oxidation," Carroll said. A better understanding of these biological processes may lead to more effective antioxidant therapies.

Carroll's coauthors on the paper are Matthieu Depuydt, Katleen Denoncin and Jean-François Collet of the Université catholique de Louvain and the Brussels Center for Redox Biology; University of Michigan graduate student Stephen Leonard; Didier Vertommen and Pierre Morsomme of the Université catholique de Louvain; and Khadija Wahni and Joris Messens of Vrije Universiteit Brussel and Brussels Center for Redox Biology.

For more information:
Kate Carroll: http://www.lsi.umich.edu/facultyresearch/labs/carroll
Science: http://www.sciencemag.org/

Nancy Ross-Flanigan | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.umich.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht CWRU researchers find a chemical solution to shrink digital data storage
22.06.2017 | Case Western Reserve University

nachricht Warming temperatures threaten sea turtles
22.06.2017 | Swansea University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

Im Focus: Optoelectronic Inline Measurement – Accurate to the Nanometer

Germany counts high-precision manufacturing processes among its advantages as a location. It’s not just the aerospace and automotive industries that require almost waste-free, high-precision manufacturing to provide an efficient way of testing the shape and orientation tolerances of products. Since current inline measurement technology not yet provides the required accuracy, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT is collaborating with four renowned industry partners in the INSPIRE project to develop inline sensors with a new accuracy class. Funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), the project is scheduled to run until the end of 2019.

New Manufacturing Technologies for New Products

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A rhodium-based catalyst for making organosilicon using less precious metal

22.06.2017 | Materials Sciences

New 3-D display takes the eye fatigue out of virtual reality

22.06.2017 | Information Technology

New technique makes brain scans better

22.06.2017 | Medical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>