Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Retracing Citrus’ Earliest Roots to Find Clues for Healthier Future

11.06.2014

That orange you’re enjoying may have been grown in Florida, but its deepest ancestral roots stretch back more than 5 million years, all the way to two wild citrus species from Southeast Asia.

University of Florida scientists led an international research team that analyzed the genome sequences of 10 diverse citrus varieties for the first time.

Their findings, published online Sunday by the journal Nature Biotechnology, could help the citrus industry find and deploy genes for resistance to citrus greening, a bacterial infection devastating crops in North America.

Fred Gmitter, a UF Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences faculty member, led the team of researchers from the United States, France, Italy, Spain and Brazil as part of a decade-long project to sequence and understand citrus genomes.

... more about:
»Citrus »crops »genes »genomes »resistance »sequences »species »sweet »varieties

They analyzed and compared the genome sequences of sweet and sour oranges, along with several important mandarin and pummelo varieties. By understanding the relationships between the various cultivated species they describe as having “very narrow genetic diversity,” the researchers hope to enable genetic modifications and traditional breeding, which could lead to crops more resistant to disease and environmental stress, as well as better flavor and health-promoting benefits.

“Citrus has incestuous genes - nothing is pure,” said Gmitter, who is based at UF’s Citrus Research and Education Center in Lake Alfred. “Now that we understand the genetic structure of sweet orange, for example, we can imagine reproducing early citrus domestication using modern breeding techniques that could draw from a broader pool of natural variation and resistance.”

New citrus trees are almost always produced by grafting, a method of propagation that binds the fruit bearing part of one tree to the root system of another. That produces trees that more quickly bear genetically identical, uniform, high quality fruit. But because of that uniformity, if one tree is susceptible to disease, they all are.

Citrus is the world’s most widely cultivated fruit crop. In Florida, it is a $9 billion industry, employing 75,000. But it is under attack from a tiny bug, the Asian citrus psyllid, which sucks on leaf sap and leaves behind the citrus greening bacteria.

The disease, which renders fruit unsuitable for sale and eventually kills trees, could wipe out the industry in the next decade if a viable treatment is not found.

UF/IFAS researchers have attempted everything from trying to eradicate the psyllid to breeding citrus rootstocks that show better greening resistance. Current control methods include removing and destroying infected trees, controlling the psyllid, and providing additional nutrition in an attempt to keep infected trees productive.

Citrus was first domesticated in Southeast Asia thousands of years ago before spreading throughout Asia, Europe, and the Americas via trade.

One of the two wild species, Citrus maxima, gave rise to today’s cultivated pummelo, the largest citrus fruit, which can often weigh 2 to 4 pounds or more. The small, easily peeled mandarins were, in contrast, found to be genetic mixes of a second species (Citrus reticulata, the ancestral mandarin species) and pummelo. Sweet orange, the world’s most widely grown citrus variety, was found to be a complex hybrid, with mixed bits and pieces of the mandarin and pummelo genomes. Seville, or sour orange, commonly used in marmalade, is a simple hybrid between the two ancestral species.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Joint Genome Institute, Genoscope in France, the Institute for Genomic Applications in Italy, and 454 Life Sciences, a Roche company, contributed to the citrus genome project.

Kimberly Moore Wilmoth | newswise
Further information:
http://www.ufl.edu

Further reports about: Citrus crops genes genomes resistance sequences species sweet varieties

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht A novel socio-ecological approach helps identifying suitable wolf habitats
17.02.2017 | Universität Zürich

nachricht New, ultra-flexible probes form reliable, scar-free integration with the brain
16.02.2017 | University of Texas at Austin

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Switched-on DNA

20.02.2017 | Materials Sciences

Second cause of hidden hearing loss identified

20.02.2017 | Health and Medicine

Prospect for more effective treatment of nerve pain

20.02.2017 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>