“Typical spinal muscular atrophies begin in infancy or early childhood and are fatal, involving all motor neurons, but SMA-LED predominantly affects nerve cells controlling muscles of the legs. It is not fatal and the prognosis is good, although patients usually are moderately disabled and require assistive devices such as bracing and wheelchairs throughout their lives,” said Robert H. Baloh, MD, PhD, director of Cedars-Sinai Medical Center’s Neuromuscular Division and senior author of a Neurology article describing the new findings on DYNC1H1.
It is a molecule inside cells that acts as a motor to transport cellular components. Using cells cultured from patients, Baloh’s group showed that the mutation disrupts this motor’s function. The researchers found that some subjects with mutations had global developmental delay in addition to weakness, indicating the brain also is involved.
“Our observations suggest that a range of DYNC1H1-related disease exists in humans – from a widespread neurodevelopmental abnormality of the central nervous system to more selective involvement of certain motor neurons, which manifests as spinal muscular atrophy,” Baloh said.
He pointed out that while this molecule is responsible for some inheritable cases of spinal muscular atrophy with lower extremity predominance, the genetic mutation is absent in others. The search continues, therefore, to find other culprit genetic mutations and develop biological therapies to correct them.
“Although this is a rare form of motor neuron disease, it tells us that dynein function – the molecular motor – is crucial for the development and maintenance of motor neurons, which we hope will provide insight into the common form of spinal muscular atrophy and also amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,” Baloh said. ALS (also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord.
Baloh, an expert in treating and studying neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases, joined Cedars-Sinai in early 2012, working with other physicians and scientists in the Department of Neurology and the Regenerative Medicine Institute to establish one of the most comprehensive neuromuscular disease treatment and research teams in California.
The study was supported by the BJC Institute for Clinical and Translational Sciences, the Children’s Discovery Institute, the National Institutes of Health, the Hope Center for Neurological Disorders, the Muscular Dystrophy Association, the Charcot Marie Tooth Association, the Columbia University Motor Neuron Center and the Burroughs Wellcome Fund.
One of the article’s other authors reports serving on the scientific advisory board of the Myositis Association; receiving revenue and speaker honoraria from Athena; owning stock in Johnson & Johnson; directing the Washington University Neuromuscular Clinical Laboratory, and receiving research support from NIH, MDA and other groups.
Citation: Neurology, March 28, 2012, published online ahead of print: “Mutations in the tail domain of DYNC1H1 cause dominant spinal muscular atrophy.”
Sandy Van | Cedars-Sinai News
Toward a 'smart' patch that automatically delivers insulin when needed
18.01.2017 | American Chemical Society
127 at one blow...
18.01.2017 | Stiftung Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, Leibniz-Institut für Biodiversität der Tiere
Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...
Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.
While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...
Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales
Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...
Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.
As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...
At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).
Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...
10.01.2017 | Event News
09.01.2017 | Event News
05.01.2017 | Event News
18.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering
18.01.2017 | Materials Sciences
18.01.2017 | Life Sciences