Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Researchers harness the immune system to improve stem cell transplant outcomes

02.10.2012
A novel therapy in the early stages of development at Virginia Commonwealth University Massey Cancer Center shows promise in providing lasting protection against the progression of multiple myeloma following a stem cell transplant by making the cancer cells easier targets for the immune system.

Outlined in the British Journal of Hematology, the Phase II clinical trial was led by Amir Toor, M.D., hematologist-oncologist in the Bone Marrow Transplant Program and research member of the Developmental Therapeutics program at VCU Massey Cancer Center. The multi-phased therapy first treats patients with a combination of the drugs azacitidine and lenalidomide.

Azacitidine forces the cancer cells to express proteins called cancer testis antigens (CTA) that immune system cells called T-cell lymphocytes recognize as foreign. The lenalidomide then boosts the production of T-cell lymphocytes. Using a process called autologous lymphocyte infusion (ALI), the T-cell lymphocytes are then extracted from the patient and given back to them after they undergo a stem cell transplant to restore the stem cells' normal function. Now able to recognize the cancer cells as foreign, the T-cell lymphocytes can potentially protect against a recurrence of multiple myeloma following the stem cell transplant.

"Every cell in the body expresses proteins on their surface that immune system cells scan like a barcode in order to determine whether the cells are normal or if they are foreign. Because multiple myeloma cells are spawned from bone marrow, immune system cells cannot distinguish them from normal healthy cells," says Toor. "Azacitidine essentially changes the barcode on the multiple myeloma cells, causing the immune system cells to attack them," says Toor.

The goal of the trial was to determine whether it was safe, and even possible, to administer the two drugs in combination with an ALI. In total, 14 patients successfully completed the investigational drug therapy. Thirteen of the participants successfully completed the investigational therapy and underwent a stem cell transplant. Four patients had a complete response, meaning no trace of multiple myeloma was detected, and five patients had a very good partial response in which the level of abnormal proteins in their blood decreased by 90 percent.

In order to determine whether the azacitidine caused an increased expression of CTA in the multiple myeloma cells, Toor collaborated with Masoud Manjili, D.V.M., Ph.D., assistant professor of microbiology and immunology at VCU Massey, to conduct laboratory analyses on bone marrow biopsies taken from trial participants before and after treatments. Each patient tested showed an over-expression of multiple CTA, indicating the treatment was successful at forcing the cancer cells to produce these "targets" for the immune system.

"We designed this therapy in a way that could be replicated, fairly inexpensively, at any facility equipped to perform a stem cell transplant," says Toor. "We plan to continue to explore the possibilities of immunotherapies in multiple myeloma patients in search for more effective therapies for this very hard-to-treat disease."

View a short video about this study featuring Toor and several patients who participated in the clinical trial:

In addition to Manjili, Toor collaborated with John McCarty, M.D., director of the Bone Marrow Transplant Program at VCU Massey, and Harold Chung, M.D., William Clark, M.D., Catherine Roberts, Ph.D., and Allison Hazlett, also all from Massey's Bone Marrow Transplant Program; Kyle Payne, Maciej Kmieciak, Ph.D., from Massey and the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at VCU School of Medicine; Roy Sabo, Ph.D., from VCU Department of Biostatistics and the Developmental Therapeutics program at Massey; and David Williams, M.D., Ph.D., from the Department of Pathology at VCU School of Medicine, co-director of the Tissue and Data Acquisition and Analysis Core and research member of the Developmental Therapeutics program at Massey.

The full manuscript of this study can be found online at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2141.2012.09225.x/abstract;jsessionid=E1C7D245C01BA1228C06198A250BC990.d03t03

This research was supported, in part, with funding from VCU Massey Cancer Center's NIH-NCI Cancer Center Support Grant P30 CA016059.

John Wallace | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.vcu.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Complete skin regeneration system of fish unraveled
24.04.2018 | Tokyo Institute of Technology

nachricht Scientists generate an atlas of the human genome using stem cells
24.04.2018 | The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: BAM@Hannover Messe: innovative 3D printing method for space flight

At the Hannover Messe 2018, the Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und-prüfung (BAM) will show how, in the future, astronauts could produce their own tools or spare parts in zero gravity using 3D printing. This will reduce, weight and transport costs for space missions. Visitors can experience the innovative additive manufacturing process live at the fair.

Powder-based additive manufacturing in zero gravity is the name of the project in which a component is produced by applying metallic powder layers and then...

Im Focus: Molecules Brilliantly Illuminated

Physicists at the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics, which is jointly run by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, have developed a high-power laser system that generates ultrashort pulses of light covering a large share of the mid-infrared spectrum. The researchers envisage a wide range of applications for the technology – in the early diagnosis of cancer, for instance.

Molecules are the building blocks of life. Like all other organisms, we are made of them. They control our biorhythm, and they can also reflect our state of...

Im Focus: Spider silk key to new bone-fixing composite

University of Connecticut researchers have created a biodegradable composite made of silk fibers that can be used to repair broken load-bearing bones without the complications sometimes presented by other materials.

Repairing major load-bearing bones such as those in the leg can be a long and uncomfortable process.

Im Focus: Writing and deleting magnets with lasers

Study published in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces is the outcome of an international effort that included teams from Dresden and Berlin in Germany, and the US.

Scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) together with colleagues from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) and the University of Virginia...

Im Focus: Gamma-ray flashes from plasma filaments

Novel highly efficient and brilliant gamma-ray source: Based on model calculations, physicists of the Max PIanck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg propose a novel method for an efficient high-brilliance gamma-ray source. A giant collimated gamma-ray pulse is generated from the interaction of a dense ultra-relativistic electron beam with a thin solid conductor. Energetic gamma-rays are copiously produced as the electron beam splits into filaments while propagating across the conductor. The resulting gamma-ray energy and flux enable novel experiments in nuclear and fundamental physics.

The typical wavelength of light interacting with an object of the microcosm scales with the size of this object. For atoms, this ranges from visible light to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

Unique scope of UV LED technologies and applications presented in Berlin: ICULTA-2018

12.04.2018 | Event News

IWOLIA: A conference bringing together German Industrie 4.0 and French Industrie du Futur

09.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Industrial Maturity of Electrically Conductive Adhesives for Silicon Solar Cells Demonstrated

25.04.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Electrode shape improves neurostimulation for small targets

25.04.2018 | Medical Engineering

Silicon as a new storage material for the batteries of the future

25.04.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>