Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Researchers find the mechanism that forms cell-to-cell catch bonds

06.06.2014

Certain bonds connecting biological cells get stronger when they’re tugged.

Those bonds could help keep hearts together and pumping; breakdowns of those bonds could help cancer cells break away and spread.


This ribbon diagram shows a pulling force applied to two common adhesion proteins called cadherins (red and blue) bound together in an X-shape. The green spheres represent calcium ions while the cyan and orange stick figures correspond to amino acids brought together as the force is applied. The hydrogen bonds that form between the amino acids create catch bonds that get stronger when pulled. Larger image. Image courtesy of Sanjeevi Sivasankar

Those bonds are known as catch bonds and they’re formed by common adhesion proteins called cadherins. Sanjeevi Sivasankar, an Iowa State University assistant professor of physics and astronomy and an associate of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Ames Laboratory, has described catch bonds as “nanoscale seatbelts. They become stronger when pulled.”

But how does that happen? How can bonds get stronger under force? Sivasankar and his research team have found long-lived, force-induced hydrogen bonds are the answer. A paper describing their findings, “Resolving the molecular mechanism of cadherin catch bond formation,” has just been published online by Nature Communications. Sivasankar is the corresponding author.

Co-authors are Kristine Manibog, an Iowa State graduate student in physics and astronomy and a student associate of the Ames Laboratory; Hui Li, of the Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Suzhou New District, China; and Sabyasachi Rakshit, of the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research in Mohali, India. Li and Rakshit are former postdoctoral researchers in Sivasankar’s laboratory.

The team’s research was supported by grants from the American Cancer Society and the American Heart Association. Sivasankar said strong cell-to-cell bonds are important to heart health and fighting cancer. He said the bonds connecting heart cells have to withstand constant mechanical forces. And, in some cancers, he said bonds no longer resist forces, allowing cancer cells to detach and spread.

To find the mechanism behind the strong ties created by catch bonds, Sivasankar’s research team began with molecular dynamics and steered molecular dynamics computer simulations based on data from previous experiments. They found that two rod-shaped cadherins bound together in an X-shape (called an X-dimer) form catch bonds when pulled and in the presence of calcium ions.

The calcium ions keep the cadherins rigid and ordered while the pulling brings parts of the proteins closer together. All of that allows a series of hydrogen bonds to form. These long-lived, force-induced hydrogen bonds lock the X-dimers into tighter contact. Sivasankar said the researchers followed up the simulations with single-molecule experiments using atomic force microscopy.

The experiments confirmed that cadherin X-dimers, when pulled and exposed to high calcium ion concentrations, formed catch bonds. Take away the force or the calcium ions, and catch bond formation was eliminated.

All of this, Sivasankar said, helps explain the biophysics of cell-to-cell adhesion. And that’s important to all of us. “Robust cadherin adhesion,” the researchers wrote in their paper, “is essential for maintaining the integrity of tissue such as the skin, blood vessels, cartilage and muscle that are exposed to continuous mechanical assault.”

Sanjeevi Sivasankar | Eurek Alert!
Further information:
http://www.news.iastate.edu/news/2014/06/05/catchbonds

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Topologische Quantenchemie
21.07.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Physik fester Stoffe

nachricht Topological Quantum Chemistry
21.07.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Physik fester Stoffe

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Manipulating Electron Spins Without Loss of Information

Physicists have developed a new technique that uses electrical voltages to control the electron spin on a chip. The newly-developed method provides protection from spin decay, meaning that the contained information can be maintained and transmitted over comparatively large distances, as has been demonstrated by a team from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute. The results have been published in Physical Review X.

For several years, researchers have been trying to use the spin of an electron to store and transmit information. The spin of each electron is always coupled...

Im Focus: The proton precisely weighted

What is the mass of a proton? Scientists from Germany and Japan successfully did an important step towards the most exact knowledge of this fundamental constant. By means of precision measurements on a single proton, they could improve the precision by a factor of three and also correct the existing value.

To determine the mass of a single proton still more accurate – a group of physicists led by Klaus Blaum and Sven Sturm of the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear...

Im Focus: On the way to a biological alternative

A bacterial enzyme enables reactions that open up alternatives to key industrial chemical processes

The research team of Prof. Dr. Oliver Einsle at the University of Freiburg's Institute of Biochemistry has long been exploring the functioning of nitrogenase....

Im Focus: The 1 trillion tonne iceberg

Larsen C Ice Shelf rift finally breaks through

A one trillion tonne iceberg - one of the biggest ever recorded -- has calved away from the Larsen C Ice Shelf in Antarctica, after a rift in the ice,...

Im Focus: Laser-cooled ions contribute to better understanding of friction

Physics supports biology: Researchers from PTB have developed a model system to investigate friction phenomena with atomic precision

Friction: what you want from car brakes, otherwise rather a nuisance. In any case, it is useful to know as precisely as possible how friction phenomena arise –...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Closing the Sustainability Circle: Protection of Food with Biobased Materials

21.07.2017 | Event News

»We are bringing Additive Manufacturing to SMEs«

19.07.2017 | Event News

The technology with a feel for feelings

12.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

NASA looks to solar eclipse to help understand Earth's energy system

21.07.2017 | Earth Sciences

Stanford researchers develop a new type of soft, growing robot

21.07.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Vortex photons from electrons in circular motion

21.07.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>