The University of Warwick research team led by Professor Nick Dale and Professor Elizabeth Jones from the University of Warwick’s Biological Sciences Department have published their work today, 25th October 2007, in Nature in a paper entitled Purine-mediated signaling triggers eye development.
The researchers were exploring whether release of ATP (an important signaling and energy carrying molecule) influenced the development of locomotion in frogs. Their experiment introduced molecules called ectoenzymes (normally found on the outside surface of cells) into frog embryos at one of the earliest stages when the frogs-to-be were just 8 cells in size. Three ectoenzymes were used: E-NTPDase1, E-NTPDase2 and E-NTPDase3. These ectoenzymes degrade ATP following its release from cells, however each version of the ectoenzyme has slightly different effects on this degradation.
The Warwick research team’s interest in locomotion was quickly eclipsed when they were amazed to find that the introduction of just one of the ectoenzemes (E-NTPDase2) had a dramatic affect on eye development in the tadpoles grown from these embryos. When introduced in cells that would form the head area of the tadpole multiple eyes appeared to be created. That was not the only surprise. When it was introduced in some cells that formed body parts outside the head area it could still produce an additional “ectopic” eye leading to tadpoles with an additional eye in their side, abdomen or even along their tail.
E-NTPDase2 quickly latches on to ATP converting it to ADP. This meant that where and when the researchers introduced E-NTPDase2 it led to nearby cells experiencing much higher levels of ADP. The Warwick team hypothesized that ATP must be released in a short burst from the location where the eye will develop so that it can be converted to ADP by E-NTPDase2, thereby providing the trigger for eye development. They were able to measure these short bursts of ATP using ATP sensors specially developed by Professor Dale. This is the first time researchers have been able to see and measure bursts of ATP so early in the development of living creatures.
The genes that initiate and direct eye development are well known and are collectively termed the Eye Field Transcription Factors” (EFTFs). One of the mysteries of the field is how these genes get turned on in the correct location and at the correct time to initiate eye development. The Warwick research shows that this short burst of ATP followed by accumulation of ADP is a key signal for initiating expression of the EFTFs and hence the development of the eye.
The discovery of this surprising new signal that literally switches on eye development it is not restricted to frogs. Mutations to the E-NTPDase2 gene on the human 9th chromosome is already known to cause severe head and eye defects. This suggests that this newly discovered mechanism for triggering eye development applies across a wide range of species.
This new understanding of how eye development is triggered will greatly assist researchers exploring stem cells connected to eye development and opens up an avenue of a research that could in just a few decades lead to the ability to produce an “eye in a dish”.
Peter Dunn | alfa
Flow of cerebrospinal fluid regulates neural stem cell division
21.05.2018 | Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt
Chemists at FAU successfully demonstrate imine hydrogenation with inexpensive main group metal
21.05.2018 | Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics
Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...
The historic first detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes far outside our galaxy opened a new window to understanding the universe. A...
A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. This fundamental demonstration could lead to the development of highly sensitive optical gradiometers for the precise measurement of the gravitational field or the earth's magnetic field.
The age of quantum technology has long been heralded. Decades of research into the quantum world have led to the development of methods that make it possible...
Cardiovascular tissue engineering aims to treat heart disease with prostheses that grow and regenerate. Now, researchers from the University of Zurich, the Technical University Eindhoven and the Charité Berlin have successfully implanted regenerative heart valves, designed with the aid of computer simulations, into sheep for the first time.
Producing living tissue or organs based on human cells is one of the main research fields in regenerative medicine. Tissue engineering, which involves growing...
A team of scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg investigated optically-induced superconductivity in the alkali-doped fulleride K3C60under high external pressures. This study allowed, on one hand, to uniquely assess the nature of the transient state as a superconducting phase. In addition, it unveiled the possibility to induce superconductivity in K3C60 at temperatures far above the -170 degrees Celsius hypothesized previously, and rather all the way to room temperature. The paper by Cantaluppi et al has been published in Nature Physics.
Unlike ordinary metals, superconductors have the unique capability of transporting electrical currents without any loss. Nowadays, their technological...
02.05.2018 | Event News
13.04.2018 | Event News
12.04.2018 | Event News
18.05.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering
18.05.2018 | Information Technology
18.05.2018 | Information Technology