Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Cross-species transplant in rhesus macaques is step toward diabetes cure for humans

22.10.2007
With an eye on curing diabetes, scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have successfully transplanted embryonic pig pancreatic cells destined to produce insulin into diabetic macaque monkeys – all without the need for risky immune suppression drugs that prevent rejection.

The transplanted cells, known as primordia, are in the earliest stages of developing into pancreatic tissues. Within several weeks of the transplants, the cells became engrafted, or established, within the three rhesus macaque monkeys that received them. The cells also released pig insulin in response to rising blood glucose levels, as would be expected in healthy animals and humans.

"The approach reduced the animals' need for insulin injections and has promise for curing diabetes in humans," says senior investigator Marc Hammerman, M.D., the Chromalloy Professor of Renal Diseases in Medicine. "The transplants worked without a need for immune suppression and that is a major obstacle we have overcome."

The researchers' results appear online and will be published in the journal Xenotransplantation in November.

Although the transplants fell short of producing sufficient insulin to cure the macaques' diabetes, Hammerman predicts that with additional research, including the transplantation of additional embryonic pig cells into the animals, he will be able to reduce their need for insulin injections entirely.

The new research follows on the heels of reports by Hammerman and his colleagues demonstrating that transplanted pig pancreatic primordia can cure both type 1 and type 2 diabetes in rats, without using immune suppression drugs. Other scientists have tried different types of pancreatic cell transplants – in animals and humans – as a stepping stone to curing diabetes, but they all require anti-rejection drugs. These drugs must be taken daily to stave off rejection and have adverse effects of their own that limit the success of the transplants.

As a treatment for diabetes in people, pig insulin typically works as well as the human form. Before recombinant DNA technology enabled pharmaceutical companies to manufacture human insulin in the 1980s, pig and cow insulin were routinely given to diabetic patients.

The primates in the current study had type 1 diabetes, the form that occurs when islet cells in the pancreas stop producing insulin all together. The Washington University researchers transplanted 19 embryonic pig pancreatic primordia into each diabetic monkey. Each primordium is smaller than the diameter of a period that ends a sentence and is transplanted into a membrane that envelops the intestines and other digestive organs.

The transplanted cells were retrieved from the pig embryos early in their development, which is believed to render them "invisible" to the primates' immune system or induce a state of tolerance, either of which eliminates the need for immune suppression.

The researchers determined by multiple methods that the transplanted cells became established within the primates. And as the cells matured, they began to release pig insulin. "We found using every method that the cells engraft long-term and, thus, are not rejected by the animals' immune systems," Hammerman says. "It's been more than two years since our first transplant was carried out. That particular primate doesn't produce any primate insulin, but has pig insulin circulating in its bloodstream that has reduced by more than 50 percent the amount of injected insulin the animal needs, compared to levels before the transplant. The animals have never received immune suppression drugs."

Two of the macaques remain healthy. One, however, became anemic about six weeks post-transplant and was euthanized a month later after developing acute respiratory distress. The researchers could not find a link between this animal's illness and the pancreatic cell transplants.

The two remaining macaques have each received two transplants of embryonic pancreatic cells. One of the animals has been followed for 23 months after his first transplant, and the amount of insulin he needs to have injected has declined by some 55 percent over baseline levels. The other macaque has been followed for 10 months after his initial transplant, and his need for injected insulin continues to decline over time.

Hammerman and his colleague Sharon Rogers, research instructor in medicine, are leaders in the emerging field of organogenesis, which focuses on growing organs from transplanted embryonic organ precursors known as primordia. Unlike embryonic stem cells, which can become virtually any cell type, primordia are locked into becoming cells of a particular organ.

"We are encouraged by these results," Rogers says. "The absence of a need for immune suppression in diabetic rats gave us hope that we were on the right track. But many findings in rats do not hold true for species that are more closely related to humans, such as non-human primates. This one did."

The team will now determine how best to eliminate the need for injected insulin in the diabetic macaques that receive transplants, thus demonstrating long-term effectiveness of the technique, and establish the absolute safety of pancreatic primordia transplants. If these experiments succeed, the researchers plan to conduct clinical trials in humans with diabetes.

"We hope to find out how to apply our findings to human type 1 and type 2 diabetics because the embryonic pig primordia would represent an unlimited source of tissue for transplantation," Hammerman says.

Caroline Arbanas | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.wustl.edu

Further reports about: Diabetes Embryonic Hammerman Insulin cure macaque month pancreatic primate primordia suppression

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht How brains surrender to sleep
23.06.2017 | IMP - Forschungsinstitut für Molekulare Pathologie GmbH

nachricht A new technique isolates neuronal activity during memory consolidation
22.06.2017 | Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can we see monkeys from space? Emerging technologies to map biodiversity

An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.

Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Quantum thermometer or optical refrigerator?

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

A 100-year-old physics problem has been solved at EPFL

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Equipping form with function

23.06.2017 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>